2INTRODUCTIONThe 3D Construction System is a cost-efficient construction system based on industrially prefabricated 3D panels. The 3D panels consist of an EPS core with a thickness ranging from 40 to 150 mm sandwiched between two plane-parallel welded wire mesh sheets (cover meshes) and inclined diagonal wires in between that go through the EPS core and that are welded to the cover mesh’s line wires. This results in a light-weight, three-dimensional truss system with a high inherent stiffness.
33D-ELEMENTS Conventional Materials Concrete Reinforcement Steel DiagonalsPolystyrene3D components are thin-walled reinforced concrete sandwich elements. Components of 3D elements can generally be dimensioned as other reinforced concrete components. All theoretical reflections and standards are applicable also for 3D components if it is taken into consideration that the effective concrete cross section is reduced by the EPS core and that shear forces can only be transferred via the diagonals.
4PANELS AND SHOTCRETE 2 Materials for the entire building A 3D component consists of an EVG 3D panel and of concrete layers of at least 40 mm thickness applied on both sides. For load-bearing 3D components the minimum thickness of concrete is 50 mm. Only for the walls of one-storey buildings 40 mm of concrete are sufficient.
5BOX-LIKE STRUCTURESThe box-like structure guarantees maximum resistance against earthquake forces.
6SAFE CONNECTIONS OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS No danger due to non-structural elements(e.g. collapsing brick walls)continuous meshreinforcementno connectionbrick-column or beam
7HEAT AND SOUND INSULATION Heat insulation depends on thickness of EPS and number of diagonals- adjustable for different climatesU-value can go up to W/m²KSound insulation depends on weight of wallaverage sound reduction: R = dB combined with dry walls: R = dB
8LIMITS OF 3D STRUCTURES4 to 7 stories additional columns in critical areas can increase the number of storieslength of slabs up to 6m small beams between panels can increase the max. length of spanheight of walls up to 6mIn general, 3D structures can consist of 4 to 7 stories. In case of higher buildings in some areas additional reinforced concrete columns are required.The maximum length of span of a 3D slab is approx. 6 m. For longer spans or high loads hidden beams between the panels are required. However, the limit for the length of span is equal to the limits of reinforced concrete slabs with a total thickness of 20-22cm.Loadbearing 3D-walls cannot be higher than 6m. If the wall is higher the 3D wall panel can serve as non-loadbearing panel for stiffening purposes only.
9HOW TO BUILD WITH EVG 3D CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM Construction work with 3D Construction System is a simple step-by-step procedure. A few skilled workers (masons and carpenters) are required only. Most of the workers can be unskilled.
10ERECTION OF WALL PANELS Step 1 of 8:Start erection in cornersConnection to starter barsWe recommend to drill in the starter bars after concreting by means of percussion drills (Hilti). Holes of approx cm depth and of 11 mm diameter are drilled at a distance of approx. 50 cm and then the starter bars are driven in by means of a hammer.If a tension-proofed connection is required for structural reasons (horizontal forces, moments), the drilling hole is to be filled with epoxy resin prior to driving-in of the starter bars. However in most of the cases only vertical forces are transferred to the foundation and hence such measures can be omitted. These starter bars only serve for positioning of the wall panels and are meant to hold the walls in place.Once the preparative measures are completed, erection of the wall panels can be started.It is recommended to start erection of the panels at the corners or at wall crossings in order to achieve a possibly stiff panel wall from the beginning and to reduce the temporary wall stiffenings to a minimum. Wall openings have to be taken into consideration before setting up of the panels in order to minimize waste. Only small openings (of less than 1,0 m²) have to be cut out after erection of the wall panel. It is not advisable to cut out large wall openings after erection of the panels since waste is considerably higher in this method.
11CONNECTING WALL PANELS Step 2 of 8:Fixing splice meshPneumatic tools (hog ring guns)Conventional pliersAfter erection of the wall panels the panel splices are covered by means of splice mesh. The idea behind is to create a continuous reinforcement structure as thick as the cover mesh. On average, approx. 70 % of the panel area are required for splice meshes. The splice meshes are fixed to the panel either by a hog ring gun, speed ratchet or pliers. The fastest and most efficient way of fixing the panels is the use of a hog ring gun that is run by means of compressed air (requirements approx. 100 l/min).For this purpose the following areas have to be covered by means of the splice mesh:straight panel joints straight splice mesh (b = 30 or 45 cm)external corners L-shaped bent splice mesh (b = = 45 cm)internal corners L-shaped bent splice mesh (b = 2 × 15 = 30 cm)window and door reveals U-shaped bent splice mesh (b = 45 cm)corners of wall openings straight splice mesh (b = 30 cm, fixed under 45°)As a rule the following quantity of splice mesh will be required :splice mesh with 30 cm % area of panel surfacesplice mesh with 45 cm % area of panel surface
12SHORING Step 3 of 8: Adjustable props with tripods Beams to support panelsOwing to the fact that the slab panels cannot be placed on the wall panels the strutting of slabs is quite important. Extractable slab supports are suited best for the manufacturing of slab struts. These are held vertically by means of a tripod. A wooden beam serves as a support for the slab panels and is fixed to the props. On the props a horizontal mark is drawn which helps to align the beams.
13PREPARATION OF SLAB PANELS Step 4 of 8Additional reinforcementsStraight Rebars (flexural reinforcement)Stirrups (support)To facilitate work, the panels are reinforced with the necessary items already on the floor.additional reinforcement (bars) at the bottomsplice mesh at the bottom (on one side)U-shaped stirrups at the support
14PLACING SLAB PANELS Step 5 of 8 Space between beams max. 1.5m 1.50m Considering a top concrete layer of 60 mm and a live load under assembling conditions of 1.00 kN/m², a maximum shoring span of approx. 1.50m results for a standard slab panel. Thereby the edge support is set up at a distance of cm from the wall. This allows to make supports by means of tripods and facilitates considerably work for the first concrete layer on the wall. Without a lateral overhang of the slab panel or if this overhang cannot be tied to a 3D wall, it is even recommended to reduce the shoring span to 1.20 m.As soon as the top concrete layer on the slab and the concrete on the walls are sufficiently hardened to carry slight mounting loads (after days), these edge supports can be removed and the shoring span can be increased to up to 2.25 m. However make sure that - before removing the edge support - in the area of the reinforcement at the support at least a 50 cm wide strip of the first concrete layer on the bottom side of the slab has been applied to assure the bond between the panel and the reinforcement at the support from the beginning. It is only in this case that the mounting loads can be transferred to the walls correctly.For obtaining the maximum shoring spans, it is however inevitable that the connection of slab and wall panels at the support is thoroughly made. Otherwise the edges could be lifted and the deflection during concreting would be significantly larger.
15TOP CONCRETE ON 3D SLABS Step 6 of 8 6cm concrete on top of slabs The top concrete layer is usually 6 cm thick and is cast like in case of a conventional slab.Concrete grade must be at least B20 (C 16/20).
16SHOTCRETE ON 3D WALLS Step 7a of 8 40 to 50mm Shotcrete 1 or 2 Layers Shotcrete usually will be applied in 1 or 2 layers. The shotcrete layers are always kept rough. The smooth surface is done by an additional finishing layer of mortar.
17MANUAL PLASTERING Step 7b of 8 40 to 50mm Plaster 3 Layers This photo shows the manual application of concrete. For manual plastering the cement mortar including finishing is applied in three layers. The first layer reaches up to the cover mesh, the second layer ensures the required concrete cover, afterwards a wet-on-wet finishing coat is applied, if possible. When applying several cement mortar layers it is important that the surface is dustfree to allow optimum bonding.
18WALL FINISHING Step 8 of 8 1st layer of Shotcrete finishing layer (smooth surface)After the 2nd Layer the finishing can be applied. Depending on the customer’s requirements this can be a rough or a smooth surface.
19CHARACTERISTICS OF EVG 3D CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM The 3D Construction System meets all structural and physical requirements relating to building physics. Especially, when it comes to structural strength 3D offers some unique opportunities.Not only tests but real life experience with earthquakes and hurricanes, as well show the remarkable strength of 3D Construction System.
20SIMPLE INSTALLATION PROCESS No special tools requiredSimple step-by-step procedureCONCRETEWALL PANELSPANEL CONNECTIONSLAB PANELSSHOTCRETE
21HEAT INSULATION 3D Bricks Concrete (20cm)Bricks(60cm)Concrete(100cm)® Reduced costs for A/C systems or heating systems and reduced operating costs
22LIGHTWEIGHT Compared to concrete 3D provides for: 90 % rigidity reduced costs for foundation
23DURABILITY Jolly Harbour, Antigua 3D structures in coastal areas Excellent protection due to tense shotcrete coverLong life time of 3D structuresJolly Harbour, Antigua
24UNIQUE DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES Domes and roofs without internal supportWalls acting as deep beamsCantilever Wall
25EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE 6.5 and 6.9 on Richter ScaleNo damage
26HURRICANE RESISTANCE Habitat for Humanity, Florida Hurricane Andrew (September 1992)
27MONOLITHIC STRUCTURES Foundation washed out after a dam breakSecure structures under every soil condition
28ADVANTAGES Fast and easy erection with unskilled labour Economical use of local materialsStructurally stable constructionGood thermal insulationUse of prefabricated elements produced on an industrial scale (thus, low cost)Great variety of design featuresMinimum installation work on site (no cranes)