2 DEFINITION: EVOLUTION: Skeleton of wood, steel or reinforced concrete. man: Fachwerk) is the method of creating framed structures of heavy timber jointed together with pegged mortise and tenon joints.Timber framingBalloon framePlatform frame light-frame constructionStructure supported mainly by a skeleton, or frame, of wood, steel, or reinforced concrete rather than by load-bearing walls. Rigid frames have fixed joints that enable the frames to resist lateral forces; other frames require diagonal bracing or shear walls and diaphragms for lateral stability. Heavy timber framing was the most common type of construction in East Asia and northern Europe from prehistoric times to the mid-19th century. It was supplanted by the balloon frame and the platform frame ( light-frame construction). Steel's strength, when used in steel framing, made possible buildings with longer spans.
3 ELEMENTS: Slab Beams Plinth beam Columns Foundation Cantilever The flat ceiling of a story is called a 'Slab'. The peripheral horizontal members supporting the slab are called 'Beams'. The beams at ground level or plinth level (the lowermost habitable level) are called 'Plinth Beams'. The vertical members supporting the beams are called 'Columns'. The system below ground transferring the entire load of the structure to the soil is called 'Foundation'. A slab or a beam supported only on one side and projecting horizontally on the other side is called a 'Cantilever' slab or beam e.g. balconies, lofts and canopies.
4 ASSEMBLY: Slabs + beams + columns + foundation = unit. Load: Slab beams columns foundation soil*wallsTypes of load:gravity dead loadLateral wind and seismic loadAn RCC Framed Structure is an assembly of slabs, beams, columns and foundation connected to one another so that it behaves as one unit. It is a methodology, which enables the construction of tall buildings and building with stilts. Majority of urban structures and multistoried buildings are built as RCC framed structures. In an RCC framed structure, the load is transferred from a slab to the beams then to the columns and further to lower columns and finally to the foundation which in turn transfers it to the soil. The walls in such structures are constructed after the frame is ready and are not meant to carry any load. As against this, in a load bearing structure, the loads are directly transferred to the soil through the walls, which are capable of carrying them.There are basically two types of loads which a structure must support or resist. Gravity loads: These loads act vertically downward such as the Dead Load (the weight of the structure itself along with the walls, overhead water tanks, immovable furniture etc) and Live Load (the weight of inhabitants or users, movable furniture etc) Lateral loads: These loads act horizontally on the structure such as wind load and seismic (earthquake) load. These may act in any direction depending on the incidence of wind or earthquake. TYPES
6 STEEL FRAME: Advantages: Highest strength-to-weight High risk environments subject to rot, corrosion, high humidityQuick ConstructionFewer Skills RequiredNot Susceptible to termitesSubstantially more economical.High Levels of Building accuracyImproved thermal and acoustic propertiesMinimal wastageNon-combustibleLow weight yielding – high strengthNo Chasing for servicesDisadvantages:The advent of light steel frame building in South Africa is one of the most exciting developments in recent times in the steel and building industries. While this method of building has been used in most leading countries such as the US, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand for decades, it has only recently been introduced and accepted in South Africa. It offers quality, cost and energy efficiency, as well as speed of erection for both residential and commercial buildings. Some of the most prestigious and sought after real estate in the world has been built using light steel frame construction in areas such as the Gold Coast of Australia and Hawaii where coastal conditions are extreme. The steel-framing concept has proven itself over half a century and is currently the fastest growing building technique in the world.as having the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any other building material and therefore our steel structures are ideal for high risk environments subject to rot, corrosion, high humidity, etc. With steel being lighter than wood, termite proof, and basically fireproof, steel structures are the way of the future. steel is proven to be substantially more economical.steel is proven to be substantially more economical.•
7 WOOD FRAME: Advantages: Easy to acquire, transport and work It is lighter and inexpensive than other materialsDisadvantages:It isn’t fire-water resistantIt can be attacked by termites.
8 REINFORCED CONCRETE: Advantages: Rigidity Continuity Shear wall SlipformingDisadvantages:Concrete frames impart greater rigidity and continuity; various advancements, such as the introduction of the shear wall and slipforming, have made concrete a serious competitor with steel in high-rise structures.