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>ENTER< [PLS PUT ON SAFETY HELMETS BEFORE ENTERING THIS SITE.]

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Presentation on theme: ">ENTER< [PLS PUT ON SAFETY HELMETS BEFORE ENTERING THIS SITE.]"— Presentation transcript:

1 >ENTER< [PLS PUT ON SAFETY HELMETS BEFORE ENTERING THIS SITE.]

2 STRUCTURES RULES OF THUMB CLADDING RECOMMENDATION SOURCES

3

4 -higher strength and stiffness compared to other structural materials -stays straight and true, preventing cracks due to shrinking -non combustible -does not warp, split, rot over time. -heavy and expensive -has tendency to corrode, expensive treatments need to be considered -slender and exposed steel work may be used to good architectural effects -steel is formed into sections of efficient shape to minimize weight and make optimal use of expensive materials

5 easy material to work with- readily available as a natural product from renewable resources- Low energy system of construction- building can be deconstructable or relocatable- has a wide range of structural uses and appealing- finishes and can be reused many times stable material which does not conduct heat and cold- not as strong as steel- affected by termites and rot- Flammable- problems rising from shrinks, warp, splits and twists-

6 The structure that we’ll look into will be as follows; POSTS / BEAMSPORTAL FRAMETRUSSESSPACE FRAME >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< The selection of a generic type structure is based on a number of factors. The most important of which are; scale, which determines the spans involved; internal planning, which dictates the nature of the internal spaces required; and external treatment. The final selection will be determined by the issues of cost and technical feasibility.

7 POSTS / BEAMS PORTAL FRAMETRUSSESSPACE FRAME Brief intro -seen in most architectural structures -consist of horizontal spanning elements supported on vertical columns or walls. -Subdivided into 2 categories- skeleton frame and panel structure. Skeleton frame A network of beams and columns which support floor slabs and roof cladding, and to which wall cladding is attached. Considerable freedom is available for the matter of internal planning. Both the internal partition and exterior walls are non-load bearing. Large wall free space can therefore be created. Panel structures An arrangement of structural walls and horizontal panels. It imposes greater constraints on planning freedom than skeleton framing. >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< NEXT >>

8 POSTS / BEAMS PORTAL FRAMETRUSSESSPACE FRAME Characteristics of posts and beams structures -horizontal elements are subjected to bending-type internal forces (gravitational load). -requires structural materials to be capable of resisting both tension and compression (e.g. steel, reinforced concrete, timber) Advantages - Simple and therefore cheap to construct Disadvantages -larger amount of materials are required to support a given load which are unnecessary in other types of structure. Thus it is an inefficient type of structure. >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_7.jpg", "name": "POSTS / BEAMS PORTAL FRAMETRUSSESSPACE FRAME Characteristics of posts and beams structures -horizontal elements are subjected to bending-type internal forces (gravitational load).", "description": "-requires structural materials to be capable of resisting both tension and compression (e.g. steel, reinforced concrete, timber) Advantages - Simple and therefore cheap to construct Disadvantages -larger amount of materials are required to support a given load which are unnecessary in other types of structure. Thus it is an inefficient type of structure. >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< <

9 PORTAL FRAME TRUSSES SPACE FRAMEPOSTS / BEAMS Brief intro -a braced framework of ties, beams or bars usually arranged in a series of triangles, as for the support of roofs. Characteristics of trusses -2 basic types -main difference being that in one, the principle elements are spaced close together and carry the roof cladding directly. In the other, they are located at fairly wide spacing and are linked by a secondary system of elements to which the cladding is attached. Advantages -wide variety of roof geometry in elevational forms; flat, mono- pitch, duo-pitch and curved. -relative simplicity and low cost in analyzing and fabrication. Disadvantages -a vertical load applied is not shared throughout the structure. -labour intensive, rising in labour cost. >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS<

10 PORTAL FRAMETRUSSES SPACE FRAME POSTS / BEAMS Brief intro -3 dimensional triangulated frame work for enclosing space in which all members are interconnected and act as a single entity. Characteristics of space frame -vertical load applied to any point will be distributed through all the other elements and thus to all of the supports. Advantages -Easy installation of mechanical and electrical services and air handling ducts within the structural depth. Thus greatly reducing or even eliminating the need for secondary steel work. -failure of one or a limited number of elements does not necessarily lead to overall collapse of structure. -highly modular structures assembled from components that are almost exclusively factory made. -due to modular nature, space grids may be extended without difficulty and even taken down and reassembled else where. -great choice in the location of supports. Within reason, space grids can be supported at any node of the grid and at practically any location on plan. NEXT >> >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS<

11 PORTAL FRAMETRUSSES SPACE FRAME POSTS / BEAMS Advantages -the whole roof can be assembled safely at or near ground level, complete with decking and services and then jacked into it final position. Disadvantages -the cost can sometimes be high when compared with alternative structural systems. -the number and complexity of the joints can lead to a longer erection time on site. >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_10.jpg", "name": "PORTAL FRAMETRUSSES SPACE FRAME POSTS / BEAMS Advantages -the whole roof can be assembled safely at or near ground level, complete with decking and services and then jacked into it final position.", "description": "Disadvantages -the cost can sometimes be high when compared with alternative structural systems. -the number and complexity of the joints can lead to a longer erection time on site. >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< <

12 PORTAL FRAME TRUSSESSPACE FRAMEPOSTS / BEAMS Brief intro -portal frames are in effect arches, but whereas true arches are curved, portal frames may consist of straight members. Characteristics -can be 3 pin 2 pin or completely rigid -exert horizontal thrust on their foundation -‘pin’ connection does not transfer bending -less stress on knee with low pitches Advantages -economical -spanning ability of 15-45m column free -ease and speed of erection -simple in construction -less trade skills are required Disadvantages -bracing needs to be considered as building gets longer. >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS<

13 STRUCTURES RULES OF THUMB CLADDING RECOMMENDATION SOURCES

14 The most ineffective place to do work for a building is on-site, for workers and the weather are unpredictable, therefore any work that can be done off site by other companies saves money and time. Multiple companies could be all working at the same time and then just truck in there goods at the appropriate time. Colorbond (non-insulated) Pros -$15 - $16.50 square meter -Cheap than insulated colorbond -Refinished -Excellent spanning capacity -Excellent speed of erection -Low maintenance -Easy to replace -Quick installation -Can be installed by builder, cheap - Recyclable -Lightweight -Installation time -Small so 1 truck can carry a large surface area -Long life Cons -Little strength if hit by vehicle -Non-load bearing -No insulation -Extra cost to insulate -Risk in interstitial condensation -Air leakage -Accounts for around 50% of all energy loss. -Low sound insulation -Fire resistance -Transport costs NEXT>>

15 Insulated colorbond Pros -Cheap -Insulated -Refinished -Excellent spanning capacity -Long life -Excellent speed of erection -Excellent insulation properties -Low maintenance -Easy to replace -Quick installation -Can be installed by builder, cheap -Lightweight -Small so 1 truck can carry a large surface area -Energy payback period of less than 4 years -Low air loss -Accounts for around 50% of all energy loss. -Installation time Cons -Little strength if hit by vehicle -Non-load bearing -Fire spreads easily through panels -Low sound insulation -Low Fire resistance -Not recyclable -Transport costs < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_14.jpg", "name": "Insulated colorbond Pros -Cheap -Insulated -Refinished -Excellent spanning capacity -Long life -Excellent speed of erection -Excellent insulation properties -Low maintenance -Easy to replace -Quick installation -Can be installed by builder, cheap -Lightweight -Small so 1 truck can carry a large surface area -Energy payback period of less than 4 years -Low air loss -Accounts for around 50% of all energy loss.", "description": "-Installation time Cons -Little strength if hit by vehicle -Non-load bearing -Fire spreads easily through panels -Low sound insulation -Low Fire resistance -Not recyclable -Transport costs <

16 Precast Pros -$28 - $35 square meter -Reduced maintenance -Thermal properties -Acoustic properties -Fire resistant -Design freedom -Strength if hit by a forklift -Finishes; Aggregate -Load bearing -Installation time Cons -Expensive -Occupies floor space while curing -Crane needed to lift -Special workers needed to build and lift -Shop drawings needed -Transport costs -Not recyclable Tilt Up Pros -Reduce maintenance -Thermal properties -Acoustic properties -Fire resistant -Design freedom -Strength if hit by forklift -No transport -Installation time -Load bearing -Long life Cons -Expensive (less than pre-cast) -Occupies floor space while curing -Limited finishes when compared to pre-cast -Crane needed to lift -Special workers needed to build and lift -Shop drawings needed -Not recyclable

17 Pros -Moderate costs -Cheap -Installed by builder -Moderate sound absorption -Easy to replace/ maintain -Recyclable Cons -Moderate strength -Non-load bearing -No insulation -Extra cost to insulate -Moisture may get into insulation when it’s onsite, before installation has begun. -Risk in interstitial condensation -Air leakage -Accounts for around 50% of all energy loss. -Sound insulation -Fire resistance -Transport costs -Extra formwork need to support cladding -Additional surface protection needed -Installation time -Short life span when compared to the other cladding listed

18 Pros -Cheapest of all cladding -Quick installation time -Long life -Recyclable Cons -Lowest strength of all materials -Non-load bearing -No insulation -Extra cost to insulate -Risk in interstitial condensation -Air leakage -Accounts for around 50% of all energy loss. -Low sound insulation -Low fire resistance -Transport costs -Possibility of warping

19 Pros -Ability to see through -Airtight joins -Easy installation -Easy to replace -Quick installation time -Can be fire rated -Moderate thermal rating -Moderate sound insulation -Long life -Recyclable Cons -Easy to break -Costly -Non-load bearing -Transport costs

20 Pros -$17 - $21.50 per square meter -Reduced maintenance -Thermal properties -Acoustic properties -Fire resistant -Design freedom -Strength if hit by forklift -Load bearing -Long life Cons -Cost -Limited finishes -Special workers needed to build -Transport -Installation time -Not easily recyclable

21 STRUCTURES RULES OF THUMB CLADDING RECOMMENDATION SOURCES

22 ‘Green Warehouse’ on Briggs Drive, Altona, 18/03/2004 Portal Frame Structure with two rows of internal columns Dimensions: 52 x 70 meters NEXT>>

23 Front Stanchion (UB) Precast (Concrete) Door Column (Parallel Flange Channel) Door and Front Stanchions NEXT>> < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_22.jpg", "name": "Front Stanchion (UB) Precast (Concrete) Door Column (Parallel Flange Channel) Door and Front Stanchions NEXT>> <> <

24 15mm Nut 15mm Bolt 20mm Nut 10mm Thick 75mm 80 mm NEXT>> < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_23.jpg", "name": "15mm Nut 15mm Bolt 20mm Nut 10mm Thick 75mm 80 mm NEXT>> <> <

25 310mm 165mm 230mm 80mm 10mm 160mm Stanchion Precast Panel Door Column Stanchion, Door Column and Precast Panel NEXT>> < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_24.jpg", "name": "310mm 165mm 230mm 80mm 10mm 160mm Stanchion Precast Panel Door Column Stanchion, Door Column and Precast Panel NEXT>> <> <

26 Cross Bracing (Front) 50mm Angle Cross Bracing with one bolt connection NEXT>> < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_25.jpg", "name": "Cross Bracing (Front) 50mm Angle Cross Bracing with one bolt connection NEXT>> <> <

27 Fly Bracing and Apex Connection Rafter Apex Connection Fly Bracing 780 mm 6mm Thick 50 x 50mm NEXT>> < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_26.jpg", "name": "Fly Bracing and Apex Connection Rafter Apex Connection Fly Bracing 780 mm 6mm Thick 50 x 50mm NEXT>> <> <

28 8 Bolt Connection Rafter Apex Connection NEXT>> < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_27.jpg", "name": "8 Bolt Connection Rafter Apex Connection NEXT>> <> <

29 Stanchion Rafter Haunching 3650mm Side Stanchion, Rafter and Haunching 380mm 6 Bolt Connection From Stanchion to Rafter 4 Bolt Connection From Stanchion to Haunching NEXT>> < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_28.jpg", "name": "Stanchion Rafter Haunching 3650mm Side Stanchion, Rafter and Haunching 380mm 6 Bolt Connection From Stanchion to Rafter 4 Bolt Connection From Stanchion to Haunching NEXT>> <> <

30 210mm 530mm 15mm Thick 25mm Bolt 20mm Nut 10mm Thick Concrete Stanchion and Cross Bracing 3 Bolt Connection 10mm Thick 90mm < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_29.jpg", "name": "210mm 530mm 15mm Thick 25mm Bolt 20mm Nut 10mm Thick Concrete Stanchion and Cross Bracing 3 Bolt Connection 10mm Thick 90mm <

31 Side Stanchions of 210 x 530mm (15mm thick) dimension, which are used in this case study, would be sufficiently sized for implication into a 30 x 54 meter warehouse without internal columns. The 230 x 80mm Door Columns are in all probability an appropriate dimension for our warehouse design. < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_30.jpg", "name": "Side Stanchions of 210 x 530mm (15mm thick) dimension, which are used in this case study, would be sufficiently sized for implication into a 30 x 54 meter warehouse without internal columns.", "description": "The 230 x 80mm Door Columns are in all probability an appropriate dimension for our warehouse design. <

32 STRUCTURES RULES OF THUMB CLADDING RECOMMENDATION SOURCES

33 ‘Blue Warehouse’ on Swann Drive, Derrmit, 23/03/2004 Portal Frame Structure with no internal columns Dimensions: 42 x 84 meters NEXT>>

34 Front Stanchion and Concrete Pad 1000mm 310mm 160mm 25mm Bolt 25mm Nut 10mm Thick NEXT>>< { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_33.jpg", "name": "Front Stanchion and Concrete Pad 1000mm 310mm 160mm 25mm Bolt 25mm Nut 10mm Thick NEXT>><><

35 Z and C Purlins 200mm 70mm 2mm Thick 260mm 2mm Thick 70mm NEXT>>< { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_34.jpg", "name": "Z and C Purlins 200mm 70mm 2mm Thick 260mm 2mm Thick 70mm NEXT>><><

36 Side Stanchion, Rafter and Haunching Connection 8 Bolt Connection 610 mm NEXT>>< { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_35.jpg", "name": "Side Stanchion, Rafter and Haunching Connection 8 Bolt Connection 610 mm NEXT>><><

37 Side Stanchion Connection 610mm 230mm 20mm Thick 10mm 25mm Nut 25mm Bolt NEXT>>< { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_36.jpg", "name": "Side Stanchion Connection 610mm 230mm 20mm Thick 10mm 25mm Nut 25mm Bolt NEXT>><><

38 Rod Bracing and Connection 25mm Diameter Rod Bracing Connection NEXT>> < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_37.jpg", "name": "Rod Bracing and Connection 25mm Diameter Rod Bracing Connection NEXT>> <> <

39 8 Bolt Apex Connection Apex NEXT>> < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_38.jpg", "name": "8 Bolt Apex Connection Apex NEXT>> <> <

40 Door Column 230 mm 10mm Thick 80mm < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_39.jpg", "name": "Door Column 230 mm 10mm Thick 80mm <

41 A Side Stanchion of 230 x 610mm (20mm thick) dimension would be somewhat oversized for a 30 meter span. However it gives a good indication of what the column dimension should be approximately 25mm diameter Rod Bracing, 260 x 70mm C purlins and 200 x 70mm Z purlins, are all suitable proportions for our design Door Columns are of the same proportions as case study one, which further emphasises the point that the 230 x 80mm (10mm thick) dimensions are suitable < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_40.jpg", "name": "A Side Stanchion of 230 x 610mm (20mm thick) dimension would be somewhat oversized for a 30 meter span.", "description": "However it gives a good indication of what the column dimension should be approximately 25mm diameter Rod Bracing, 260 x 70mm C purlins and 200 x 70mm Z purlins, are all suitable proportions for our design Door Columns are of the same proportions as case study one, which further emphasises the point that the 230 x 80mm (10mm thick) dimensions are suitable <

42 STRUCTURES RULES OF THUMB CLADDING RECOMMENDATION SOURCES

43 ‘Bridgestone Distribution Center’ on Fitzgerald Road, Sunshine, 25/03/2004 Portal Frame Structure 30 x 35 meters NEXT>>

44 Stanchion, Rafter and Modified Haunchion 190mm 460mm 2 Bolt Connection All Three Members Welded Welded Connection 15mm Thick NEXT>>< { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_43.jpg", "name": "Stanchion, Rafter and Modified Haunchion 190mm 460mm 2 Bolt Connection All Three Members Welded Welded Connection 15mm Thick NEXT>><><

45 Apex 8 Bolt Connection CLICK < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_44.jpg", "name": "Apex 8 Bolt Connection CLICK <

46 Case study three provides great examples of member dimensions for our own warehouse design. This is due to its 30 meter span which matches up with our warehouse The 8 bolt apex connection seems to be the standard for all portal frame designs. The 460 x 190mm (15mm thick) stanchions and rafters will most probably be the same members implicated in our design. < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_45.jpg", "name": "Case study three provides great examples of member dimensions for our own warehouse design.", "description": "This is due to its 30 meter span which matches up with our warehouse The 8 bolt apex connection seems to be the standard for all portal frame designs. The 460 x 190mm (15mm thick) stanchions and rafters will most probably be the same members implicated in our design. <

47 STRUCTURES RULES OF THUMB CLADDING RECOMMENDATION SOURCES

48 PRECAST RETAINING WALL NEXT>> 2800MM 2400MM 115MM 200MM

49 <> 100MM 300MM 100MM 2800MM

50 < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_49.jpg", "name": "<

51 STRUCTURES RULES OF THUMB CLADDING RECOMMENDATION SOURCES

52 Once the building permits and other relevant construction documentation are correctly completed, the site is prepared for construction with portal offices delivered. The site is cleared, leveled and services are fitted. NEXT>>

53 Pad footing holes are excavated, concrete is poured and column bolts are set. Stanchions are positioned. NEXT>>< { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_52.jpg", "name": "Pad footing holes are excavated, concrete is poured and column bolts are set.", "description": "Stanchions are positioned. NEXT>><

54 Cranes are brought in to lift prefabricated members into place. Cherrypickers are used to fix members. Concrete panels can then be lifted and placed. NEXT>> < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_53.jpg", "name": "Cranes are brought in to lift prefabricated members into place.", "description": "Cherrypickers are used to fix members. Concrete panels can then be lifted and placed. NEXT>> <

55 Steel bracing is fixed into panels and temporary concrete slab. NEXT>>< { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_54.jpg", "name": "Steel bracing is fixed into panels and temporary concrete slab. NEXT>><><

56 Panels are correctly connected. Grids, bracings, water proofing membranes and insulations are applied. NEXT>>< { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_55.jpg", "name": "Panels are correctly connected.", "description": "Grids, bracings, water proofing membranes and insulations are applied. NEXT>><

57 Office rafters and purlins are assembled and fixed into the concrete walls. The office slab in prepared, concrete is delivered and properly laid. NEXT>>< { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_56.jpg", "name": "Office rafters and purlins are assembled and fixed into the concrete walls.", "description": "The office slab in prepared, concrete is delivered and properly laid. NEXT>><

58 < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_57.jpg", "name": "<

59 STRUCTURES RULES OF THUMB CLADDING RECOMMENDATION SOURCES

60 A A NEXT>> BUILDING LAYOUT 1:400

61 SECTION A-A PALLET LAYOUT MALE W.C FEMALE W.C TEA ROOM NEXT>> office < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_60.jpg", "name": "SECTION A-A PALLET LAYOUT MALE W.C FEMALE W.C TEA ROOM NEXT>> office <

62 OFFICE/SHOWROOM LAYOUT < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_61.jpg", "name": "OFFICE/SHOWROOM LAYOUT <

63 STRUCTURES RULES OF THUMB CLADDING RECOMMENDATION SOURCES

64 TYPES COMPONENTS CONSTRUCTION >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< The type of frame most commonly used in the region is the portal frame with pinned bases. This kind of frame is commonly used in factory shells, warehouses and some commercial buildings.

65 TYPES COMPONENTS CONSTRUCTION >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< 3 pin- 3 pin joints 2 at each of the supports, and 1 at the crown 2 pin- 2 pin frame has 2 pin joints at the supports. The bending moments are more evenly distributed, as a result the 2 pin frame is more economical Rigid frame- the rigid frame design due to the fact that its joints are rigid. Bending occurs in the columns of the framing. The column must therefore be of sufficient thickness to resist these bending moments.

66 COMPONENTS CONSTRUCTION >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< TYPES

67 CONSTRUCTION >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< TYPESCOMPONENTS All connections are usually bolted or welded. In the case of timber, its usually nailed. STEEL JOINTS TIMBER JOINTS NEXT>>

68 CONSTRUCTION >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< TYPESCOMPONENTS All connections are usually bolted or welded. In the case of timber, its usually nailed. NEXT>> < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_67.jpg", "name": "CONSTRUCTION >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< TYPESCOMPONENTS All connections are usually bolted or welded.", "description": "In the case of timber, its usually nailed. NEXT>> <

69 CONSTRUCTION >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< TYPESCOMPONENTS -each frame is linked by longitudinal beams at the top of the columns and purlins between the rafters -diagonal bracing at the first and last bays and roof plane. -bracing is very important to the stability of the frame < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_68.jpg", "name": "CONSTRUCTION >CLICK ON THUMBNAILS< TYPESCOMPONENTS -each frame is linked by longitudinal beams at the top of the columns and purlins between the rafters -diagonal bracing at the first and last bays and roof plane.", "description": "-bracing is very important to the stability of the frame <

70 STRUCTURES RULES OF THUMB CLADDING RECOMMENDATION SOURCES

71 WAREHOUSE We wanted to have the warehouse with cladding so that anything could be stored inside giving freedom to any company that wanted to occupy it. So we needed cladding that was insulated against noise, heat, weather and that couldn’t get damaged too easily. Therefore we came up with the following recommendations. Pre-cast on all walls up to 2m Pre-Cast will be used up to 2 m on all walls of the warehouse due to its strength properties, if it got hit by a forklift, or similar. Also the thickness of the panels gives good acoustic installation. Insulated colorbond for 2-7m gap on walls Cheap to install, and has great thermal qualities for the cost of the product. The people and equipment needed to implement the material is also quite low. Resistance to water penetration due to off site production doubles the life of the product. Insulated colorbond for roofing Cheap to install, and has great thermal qualities for the cost of the product and the people and equipment needed to implement the material. Also resistant to water penetration due to off site production, doubles the life of the product. Colorbond can have a very low roof angle saving on expensive roof structure. Easy to add skylights at 2 sheet intervals of light penetration colorbond. Must be backed internally by a weather proofing membrane. OFFICE>>

72 OFFICE The office needs to be quiet and bright to work in, and the display space needs easy access for forklifts, with a front glass façade, so that customers would be able to see the product as they drove by. Pre-cast for south, east, and west façade The great acoustic insulation is what made pre-cast so good for the office space, it meant that all the noise from the trucks and forklifts outside and in the warehouse would not be heard. Able to be finished in many ways and colors also made pre-cast more appealing. Glass for the North facade, and some on the east and west A show room needs to grab the attention of a passer by, and this is done through the front glass façade, side windows on the west and east façade allow light to get into the office and display space. Insulated colorbond for roofing Cheap to install, and has great thermal qualities for the cost of the product and the people and equipment needed to implement the material. Also resistant to water penetration due to off site production, this helps the life of the product. Colorbond will match the warehouse in roof slope and look and save money due to the inexpensive roof structure needed. < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_71.jpg", "name": "OFFICE The office needs to be quiet and bright to work in, and the display space needs easy access for forklifts, with a front glass façade, so that customers would be able to see the product as they drove by.", "description": "Pre-cast for south, east, and west façade The great acoustic insulation is what made pre-cast so good for the office space, it meant that all the noise from the trucks and forklifts outside and in the warehouse would not be heard. Able to be finished in many ways and colors also made pre-cast more appealing. Glass for the North facade, and some on the east and west A show room needs to grab the attention of a passer by, and this is done through the front glass façade, side windows on the west and east façade allow light to get into the office and display space. Insulated colorbond for roofing Cheap to install, and has great thermal qualities for the cost of the product and the people and equipment needed to implement the material. Also resistant to water penetration due to off site production, this helps the life of the product. Colorbond will match the warehouse in roof slope and look and save money due to the inexpensive roof structure needed. <

73 RETAINING WALLS We recommend that all retaining walls are made from steel I-beams and pre-cast panels. This option was chosen due to the strength of both materials and life span. Wooden members tend to rot or be eaten after only a 10 year period. The warehouse is also made of pre-cast panels and I-beams, thus reducing the cost of attaining another contractor.

74 STRUCTURES RULES OF THUMB CLADDING RECOMMENDATION SOURCES

75 (Believe it or not, almost a third of all forklift injuries involve slips, trips and falls while getting on or off forklifts. ) SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS All persons (including vehicle drivers) moving about the site must wear high visibility clothing at all times. High visibility clothing is to be available for all visitors. Area lighting must clearly illuminate pedestrians and vehicles in all traffic areas. A documented Traffic Management Plan is an invaluable aid to resolving many of the hazards and issues associated with forklift operations. The plan should be based on an assessment of forklift hazards and issues. It will govern all activities and procedures relating to forklift operations, and should cover areas such as: · Pedestrian exclusion zones · Black spots · Loading and unloading · Right of way · Policy development · Maintenance · Incident reporting and investigation · Site layout · Designated traffic zones · Use of attachments · Signage · Purchasing · Training NEXT>> FORKLIFTS SAFETY While the forklift has transformed modern warehouse, storage and loading operations, the benefits can come at a terrible price. Forklifts present serious potential dangers to operators and pedestrians - dangers which frequently result in serious injury or death. The reality is that from January 1985 to January 2003, forklifts were associated with 48 fatalities in Victorian workplaces. These fatalities were preventable.

76 Counter Balance Forklift, has a weight at the back which is slightly more than anything it will lift, hence the name counter balance. Much older design and actually has a seat like a car. These are rarely used compared to the other two types, their turning circle is 5 metres, which is just another negative for them. Ride or Reach Forklift, also has a turning circle 3.1 metres. It takes a person up with the platform, and they can simply pick up the required items and place them on the platform. Obviously only used for light objects and only the odd one, has no use when moving palettes unless its platform is removed. The platform can move up and down as the entire forklift travels down the aisle. This is all controlled from the platform. GENERAL INFORMATION ON FORKLIFTS Extend Fork Forklift, has a turning circle of 3.1 metres, therefore aisle widths are generally also at least 3.1metres wide. In the case of the Deakin printery warehouse they are 3.1 meters wide. <>

77 FIREWALL A firewall allows the warehouse to become like two warehouses as this wall is basically impenetrable, allowing the areas of each warehouse to be smaller and thus the need for sprinklers to be not applicable. This door shuts on activation and locks each area, it is fireproof along with the wall for a considerable amount of time, and will resist considerable explosion. So at worst only half the warehouse could be destroyed. I.e. either side of the wall. The firewall here is comprised of hollow bricks tied in stages of 8 runs, then they are pumped full of concrete, and the entire wall becomes a solid. A firewall like this would also be used on an outer wall when any adjoining building is touching or reasonably close by, as well as for the above purpose of dividing the warehouse in two. < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_76.jpg", "name": "FIREWALL A firewall allows the warehouse to become like two warehouses as this wall is basically impenetrable, allowing the areas of each warehouse to be smaller and thus the need for sprinklers to be not applicable.", "description": "This door shuts on activation and locks each area, it is fireproof along with the wall for a considerable amount of time, and will resist considerable explosion. So at worst only half the warehouse could be destroyed. I.e. either side of the wall. The firewall here is comprised of hollow bricks tied in stages of 8 runs, then they are pumped full of concrete, and the entire wall becomes a solid. A firewall like this would also be used on an outer wall when any adjoining building is touching or reasonably close by, as well as for the above purpose of dividing the warehouse in two. <

78 COMPOSITE FLOORING Span Bondeck or Condeck generally spans 2.5 metres Felders steel decking spans 3.5 metres Benefits Easy installation of services Speed of Construction Safe method of floor construction Saving in transportation of materials Easy installation of railing The temporary formwork required to assemble a composite floor, is considerably lower in cost, and required labour, when comparing to a conventional slab system. Once the concrete slab becomes rigid its load bearing capabilities match that of a universal beam.

79 SOURCES BOOKS Ham. Jeremy, Construction And Structures 2 Reader, Learning Resource Services, Deakin, Geelong, Ham. Jeremy, Construction And Structures 2 Reader, Learning Resource Services, Deakin, Geelong, Underwood. James R, Structural Design, A Practical Guide for Architects, John Wiley & Sons. United States of America, Australian Institute of Steel Construction, Economical Structural Steelwork, Fourth Edition, Australian Institute of Steel Construction, Economical Structural Steelwork, Student Edition ABCB, The BCA 2004 Volume One and Two, CanPrint Communications Pty Ltd, NEXT>>

80 WEBSITES /03/ NEXT>> < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_79.jpg", "name": "WEBSITES http://www.workcover.vic.gov.au02/03/04 http://www.dot.state.fl.us/structures/CADD/standards.htm04/03/04 http://www.infolink.com.au/browse_directory.asp?dirid=1216/03/04 http://oak.arch.utas.edu.au/projects/aus/207/stosda.html16/03/04 http://www.bluescopesteel.com.au19/03/04 http://www.epic.uk.com/cladding.pdf20/03/04 http://www.concrete.net.au 26/03/04 http://www.constructionengineers.com/TiltupConst.htm30/03/04 http://www.rcc-info.org.uk/powerpoint.htm30/03/04 http://www.strang-inc.com/mailing/2001/11_01.pdf31/03/04 http://www.visiongroup.co.uk/?referrer=GoogleAdWords31/03/04 http://www.abcb.gov.au02/04/04 http://www.vaughan.com.au02/04/04 NEXT>> <> <

81 MANY THANKS TO: Stephen Quinlivian, Waurn Ponds Deakin Warehouse manager, for his time and effort, and the iniative to take us on a very detailed tour. Dal Wild Architects and Ken Macleod Consulting, for their generosity of all the drawings of the Deakin warehouse printery. Sunshine Bridgestone Distribution Centre Manager, for his allowance of entry to observe and capture images of the warehouse. Paul Curmi from K&S Freighters, for his assistance in the planning of our schematic designs. Richard Twentyman from Twentyman and Associates, for his help with contacts in terms of the Deakin Warehouse. The entire team at Vaughan Construction for their inability to fence off a large number of their warehouse worksites, allowing us access at anytime when workers aren't present. < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_80.jpg", "name": "MANY THANKS TO: Stephen Quinlivian, Waurn Ponds Deakin Warehouse manager, for his time and effort, and the iniative to take us on a very detailed tour.", "description": "Dal Wild Architects and Ken Macleod Consulting, for their generosity of all the drawings of the Deakin warehouse printery. Sunshine Bridgestone Distribution Centre Manager, for his allowance of entry to observe and capture images of the warehouse. Paul Curmi from K&S Freighters, for his assistance in the planning of our schematic designs. Richard Twentyman from Twentyman and Associates, for his help with contacts in terms of the Deakin Warehouse. The entire team at Vaughan Construction for their inability to fence off a large number of their warehouse worksites, allowing us access at anytime when workers aren t present. <

82 Legend 1.Portal frame 2.Purlin, 300 x 45 mm 3.Steel strap bracing, 50 x 2 mm 4.Box column, 900 x 426 mm 5.Box rafter, 900 x 426 mm 6.T section brace, 600 x45 and 400 x45 mm 7.L section strut, 2/300 x 45 mm 8.Crane running beam 9.Nailed plywood gusset, 39 mm 10.Sheet steel connector, 2 mm 11.Ridge vent Structural Description The store building is the largest structure in the complex. It is a 32m span fixed portal frame structure with 9 bays at 8.5m centres and one at 5m. The portal is 12m clear at the eaves and rises to 15m at the ridge. Columns and rafters are fabricated from 63mm thick LVL forming a box section 900 x 426mm. The roof purlins and wall girts are 300 x 45mm LVL spaced at 1200 centres. The walls were trussed with 50 x 2mm steel straps and 90 x 45mm pine noggings. INTERNET TIMBER PORTAL FRAME CASE STUDY < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2437266/8/slides/slide_81.jpg", "name": "Legend 1.Portal frame 2.Purlin, 300 x 45 mm 3.Steel strap bracing, 50 x 2 mm 4.Box column, 900 x 426 mm 5.Box rafter, 900 x 426 mm 6.T section brace, 600 x45 and 400 x45 mm 7.L section strut, 2/300 x 45 mm 8.Crane running beam 9.Nailed plywood gusset, 39 mm 10.Sheet steel connector, 2 mm 11.Ridge vent Structural Description The store building is the largest structure in the complex.", "description": "It is a 32m span fixed portal frame structure with 9 bays at 8.5m centres and one at 5m. The portal is 12m clear at the eaves and rises to 15m at the ridge. Columns and rafters are fabricated from 63mm thick LVL forming a box section 900 x 426mm. The roof purlins and wall girts are 300 x 45mm LVL spaced at 1200 centres. The walls were trussed with 50 x 2mm steel straps and 90 x 45mm pine noggings. INTERNET TIMBER PORTAL FRAME CASE STUDY http://oak.arch.utas.edu.au/projects/aus/207/stosda.html <


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