Presentation on theme: "Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath, 1200 - 1500. I. The Rise of the Mongols Steppes and Nomadism A. Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia Impact of nomads."— Presentation transcript:
Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath,
I. The Rise of the Mongols Steppes and Nomadism A. Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia Impact of nomads Power of khan Role of slaves Importance of tribute Political federations – importance of marriage, women Females couldn’t directly succeed – tried to get position for sons Families had believers in two or more religions: Buddhism, Christianity, or Islam Impact of shamanism Religious role played by a khan and Sky/Heaven God
B. The Mongol Conquests, 1215 – – Genghis Khan – tribute and conquests of early 13 th century – Jin empire is first 1236 – grandson Batu - Russia/Eastern Europe 1258 – end of Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad Pursuit of territory under Ogodei Mongol Empire united until 1265: 1241 – death of Ogodei and succession Khubilai declared himself khan in 1265, descendents of Jagadai didn’t accept him 1271 – Khubilai emperor of Yuan Empire (China) Yuan destroyed Southern Song Invaded Vietnam – made them give tribute, unsuccessful attacks on Java and Japan Military technology/techniques (future reading) Choices: resist and be massacred/starve, or surrender and live – then contribute soldiers to Mongol army
C. Overland Trade and the Plague Commercial integration affected east and west Silk, porcelain Venetian Marco Polo (1254 – 1324) BUBONIC PLAGUE in southwestern China since the Tang period: Spread of plague in China through trade/military Animals infected – then people Caravan traffic infected oasis towns Prevented Mongol army from capturing city of Kaffa in Crimea in 1346 – plague spread to Europe/Egypt by ship More diseases (typhus, smallpox, influenza) accompanied plague Cause of great pandemic of 1347 – 1352?
II. The Mongols and Islam, 1260 – 1500 A. Mongol Rivalry 1260 – IL-KHAN state controlled much of Middle East, initially not Muslim Khanate of the GOLDEN HORDE – Southern Russia, converts to Islam wants to avenge the Abbasid Caliphate Cause of conflict between Il-Khan and Golden Horde Alliances between Il-Khan/Pope and Mamluks/Golden Horde – impact on the Crusades Problem solved in 1295 when the Il-khan ruler, Ghazan, declared himself a Muslim Mongols practice a blend of Sunni/Shi’ite theology
B. Il-Khan political and economic problems Tax farming: enterprises funded Causes excess taxation and decline of agriculture Ghazan – financial problems, failure to lessen tax burden Paper money and depression Fighting among Mongol nobility for revenue Mid – 1300s – Mongols from Golden Horde moved into western Il-khan region New power in the east – Khanate of Jagadai Leader Timur launched campaigns into western Eurasia, India, and against Ottoman sultan Groundwork of Muslim Mongol-Turkic regime, the Mughals in the 1500s
C. Culture and Science in Islamic Eurasia Accomplishments of historians Juvaini (1283) Rashid al – Din – first history of the world Ibn Khaldun Science and math accomplishments Shi’ite scholar Nasir al – Din Tusi and Mongol interest in Muslim science Math and cosmology Greek/Ptolemaic understanding of universe Nasir al – Din proposed model of small circles rotating within a large circle = moon around the earth (borrowed by Copernicus) Under Il – khans: predicted eclipses, astrolabes, three – dimensional quadrants Spread of information on astronomy/mathematics into Byzantium, Western Europe, India, and China Mathematician Ghiyas al – Din Jamshid al – Kashi and decimal fractions Al – Kashi and pi
III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia A. Russia and Rule from Afar Golden Horde and smaller Mongol states Trade routes Role of Orthodox Church Golden Horde got Russian Princes to act as tax collectors/census takers which led to currency shortages Rise of Russian unity/nationalism Alexander Nevskii, growth of Moscow, decline of Kiev/Ukraine Question of Mongol impact on Russian interaction with the West Traditional structure of local government survived Mongols along with Russian princes, competed with each other Tsar Ivan III (Late 15 th /early 16 th centuries)
B. New States in Eastern Europe and Anatolia Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II distracted by fight with the pope Teutonic Knights start northern “crusade” More information about Mongols reached Europe Mongol armies international – Mongols, Turks, Chinese, Iranians, some Europeans Europeans learned about: passports, coal mining, moveable type, high temperature metallurgy, mathematics, gunpowder, casting and use of bronze canon Outbreak of plague in 1340s 14th century – Lithuania and Balkans experience unity/nationalism in response to Mongols Serbian King Stephen Dushan Origins of Ottoman Turks Il-khans influenced eastern Anatolia Decline of Byzantine state and appeal of Muslim jihad Sultan Mehmet II captured Constantinople Ottomans took advantage of decay of Mongols – religious/linguistic identity
IV. Mongol Domination in China Yuan Empire Synthesis of Mongol & Chinese cultures Khubilai Kahn Moves from Karakorum to Beijing Lamas from Tibet become influential Racial ranking – Chinese on the bottom Administration- similarities with Il-khan Impact of trade on economy Prestigious merchant class Impact on society Cottage Industry Destruction of agrarian lifestyle Massive population decrease – causes?
Cultural exchange – Il-kahn & China Medical developments Fall of the Yuan Empire – 1340s Mongol princes Zhu Yuanzhang & the Ming Return to Mongolia – power base established Importance of Mongol identity Tribute to Ming, but only as a facilitator of trade Did the Mongols retard or stimulate political & economic change?
V. Early Ming Empire Zhu Yuanzhang = Hongwu (r ) Nanjing Shift from Buddhism to Confucianism Anti-Mongol ideology Economically unsound Military service Stability: recognized Yuan as legitimate rulers Yongle (r ) Return to Yuan practices; Beijing, trade, aggression Zheng He Achievements Why didn’t seafaring become more important?
Innovation versus advancement Agriculture Peace Japan Metals Shipbuilding Examination system Weaponry Technology gap Achievements Literature Porcelain
VI. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia, A. Korea Need to choke off sea trade Mongol conflict 1231 – 1258 Koryo/Mongol rule Ended isolationism; cultural, scientific, agricultural Rise of new landed & educated class Loyal to Mongol, Ming forced recognition Yi Kingdom Rejected Mongol period, yet continued practices Confucianism Advances in technology; printing, literacy, agriculture Strong defensive navy (gunpowder)
B. Japan 1274 – Mongol invasion Mongol threat unified the decentralized Shogunate administrative structure Defensive structure required Movement of resources from east (imperial) to west 1281 – Second Mongol invasion Again weather intervenes – kamikaze Major economic & social impact of Mongol threat; strengthen warrior class, national infrastructure Ashikaga Shogunate – 1336 Regional independence restored, rise of power of warlord Trade resumed following fall of Yuan Shogun Yoshimasa – cultural impact, Zen Buddhism Break down of power – warlords, Onin War, scramble for power – 1400s
C. Vietnam Annam and Champa rivalry Relationship with Tang and Song Mongol required submission & tribute, but little cultural Ming control for 30 years Mongol threat to Ming By 1500 Annam controlled Champa Key elements of society Confucian administration Distinct Amman legal codes Mahayana Buddhism