2 I. The Rise of the Mongols Steppes and NomadismA. Nomadism in Central and Inner AsiaImpact of nomadsPower of khanRole of slavesImportance of tributePolitical federations – importance of marriage, womenFemales couldn’t directly succeed – tried to get position for sonsFamilies had believers in two or more religions: Buddhism, Christianity, or IslamImpact of shamanismReligious role played by a khan and Sky/Heaven God
3 B. The Mongol Conquests, 1215 – 1283 1206 – Genghis Khan – tribute and conquests of early 13th c.1236 – grandson Batu - Russia/Eastern Europe1258 – death of Abbasid Caliph in BaghdadPursuit of territory under OgodeiMongol Empire united until 12651241 – death of Ogodei and successionKhubilai declared himself khan in 1265, descendents of Jagadai didn’t accept him1271 – Khubilai emperor of Yuan Empire (China)Yuan destroyed Southern SongInvaded Vietnam – made them give tribute, unsuccessful attacks on Java and JapanMilitary technology/techniquesChoices: resist and be massacred/starve, or surrender and live – then contribute soldiers to Mongol army
5 C. Overland Trade and the Plague Commercial integration affected east and westSilk, porcelainVenetian Marco Polo (1254 – 1324)BUBONIC PLAGUE in southwestern China since the Tang periodSpread of plague in China through trade/militaryAnimals infected – then peopleCaravan traffic infected oasis townsPrevented Mongol army from capturing city of Kaffa in Crimea in 1346 – plague remained, then reached Europe/Egypt by shipMore diseases (typhus, smallpox, influenza) accompanied plagueCause of great pandemic of 1347 – 1352?
7 II. The Mongols and Islam, 1260 – 1500 A. Mongol Rivalry1260 – IL – KHAN state controlled much of Middle EastKhanate of the GOLDEN HORDE – Southern RussiaReligious tension between Mongols and Muslims (practices)Cause of conflict between Il-Khan and Golden HordeAlliances between Il-Khan/Pope and Mamluks/Golden Horde – impact on the CrusadesIl-khan ruler, Ghazan declared himself a MuslimBlend of Sunni/Shi’ite theology
10 B. Islam and the StateMethods of taxation; enterprises fundedProblems with taxation and decline of agricultureGhazan – financial problems, failure to lessen tax burdenPaper money and depressionFighting among Mongol nobility for revenueMid – 1300s – Mongols from Golden Horde moved into western Il-khan regionNew power in the east – Khanate of JagadaiLeader Timur launched campaigns into western Eurasia, India, and against Ottoman sultanGroundwork of Muslim Mongol-Turkic regime, the Mughals in the 1500s
11 C. Culture and Science in Islamic Eurasia Accomplishments of historian Juvaini (1283)Rashid al – Din – first history of the worldIbn KhaldunShi’ite scholar Nasir al – Din Tusi and Mongol interest in Muslim scienceMath and cosmologyGreek/Ptolemaic understanding of universeNasir al – Din proposed model of small circles rotating within a large circle = moon around the earthNicholas CopernicusUnder Il – khans: predicted eclipses, astrolabes, three – dimensional quadrantsSpread of information on astronomy/mathematics into Byzantium, Western Europe, India, and ChinaMathematician Ghiyas al – Din Jamshid al – Kashi and decimal fractionsAl – Kashi and pi
12 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia A. Russia and Rule from AfarGolden Horde and smaller Mongol statesTrade routesRole of Orthodox ChurchPolitics of languageGolden Horde got Russian Princes to act as tax collectors/census takersRussian Princes, tax collection, and currency shortagesAlexander Nevskii, growth of Moscow, decline of Kiev/UkraineQuestion of Mongol impact on Russian interaction with the WestTraditional structure of local government survived Mongols along with Russian princes, competed with each otherTsar Ivan III (Late 15th/early 16th centuries)
13 B. New States in Eastern Europe and Anatolia Holy Roman Emperor Frederick IITeutonic KnightsMongol armies international – Mongols, Turks, Chinese, Iranians, some EuropeansMore information about Mongols reached EuropeEuropeans learned about: passports, coal mining, moveable type, high temperature metallurgy, mathematics, gunpowder, casting and use of bronze canonOutbreak of plague in 1340s14th century – Lithuania and BalkansSerbian King Stephen DushanOrigins of Ottoman TurksIl-khans influenced eastern AnatoliaDecline of Byzantine state and appeal of Muslim jihadSultan Mehmet II captured ConstantinopleOttomans took advantage of decay of Mongols – religious/linguistic identity
14 IV. Mongol Domination in China Yuan EmpireSynthesis of Mongol & Chinese culturesKhubilai KahnBeijingLamasMongols as a unifying forceRacial rankingAdministration similarities with Il-khanImpact of trade on economyPrestigious merchant classImpact on societyCottage IndustryDestruction of agrarian lifestyleMassive population decrease – causes?
15 Cultural exchange – Il-kahn & China Medical developments Fall of the Yuan Empire – 1340sMongol princesZhu Yuanzhang & the MingReturn to Mongolia – power base establishedImportance of Mongol identityTribute to Ming, but only as a facilitator of tradeDid the Mongols retard or stimulate political & economic change?
16 V. Early Ming Empire 1368-1500 Zhu Yuanzhang = Hongwu (r.1368-1398) NanjingShift from Buddhism to ConfucianismAnti-Mongol ideologyEconomically unsoundMilitary serviceStability: recognized Yuan as legitimate rulersYongle (r )Return to Yuan practices; Beijing, trade, aggressionZheng HeAchievementsWhy didn’t seafaring become more important?
17 Innovation versus advancement AgriculturePeaceJapanMetalsShipbuildingExamination systemWeaponryTechnology gapAchievementsLiteraturePorcelain
18 VI. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia, 1200 - 1500 A. KoreaNeed to choke off sea tradeMongol conflict 1231 – 1258Koryo/Mongol ruleEnded isolationism; cultural, scientific, agriculturalRise of new landed & educated classLoyal to Mongol, Ming forced recognitionYi KingdomRejected Mongol period, yet continued practicesConfucianismAdvances in technology; printing, literacy, agricultureStrong defensive navy (gunpowder)
19 1281 – Second Mongol invasion B. Japan1274 – Mongol invasionMongol threat unified the decentralized Shogunate administrative structureDefensive structure requiredMovement of resources from east (imperial) to west1281 – Second Mongol invasionAgain weather intervenes – kamikazeMajor economic & social impact of Mongol threat; strengthen warrior class, national infrastructureAshikaga Shogunate – 1336Regional independence restored, rise of power of warlordTrade resumed following fall of YuanShogun Yoshimasa – cultural impact, Zen BuddhismBreak down of power – warlords, Onin War, scramble for power – 1400s
20 Annam and Champa rivalry Relationship with Tang and Song C. VietnamAnnam and Champa rivalryRelationship with Tang and SongMongol required submission & tribute, but little culturalMing control for 30 yearsMongol threat to MingBy 1500 Annam controlled ChampaKey elements of societyConfucian administrationDistinct Amman legal codesMahayana Buddhism