3 Using your textbooks answer the following questions: Define nomadism.Describe the religious beliefs of the Mongols.Where were the Mongols able to conquer?Why were the Mongols able to conquer such a vast territory?Describe the effects of Mongol Rule in Eurasia.
4 I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 Nomadism in Central and Inner AsiaNomadism and Political intergrationNomadic groups depended on scarce water and pasture resources- in times of scarcity, conflicts occurred- resulting in the extermination of smaller groups and in the formation of alliances and out-migration.
5 I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 Social OrganizationMongol groups were strongly hierarchical organizationsheaded by a single leader or khan,khans had to ask that their decisions be ratified by a council of the leaders of powerful families.Powerful Mongol groups demanded and received tribute in goods and in slaves from those less powerful.- Some groups were able to live almost entirely on tribute.
6 I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 Marriage & WomenMongol groups formed complex federations that were often tied together by marriage alliances.Women from prestigious families often played an important role in negotiating these alliances.Wives and mothers of rulers traditionally managed state affairs between the death of a ruler and the selection of a successor,- often working to secure a relative to the position.
7 I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 4. Nomadism & ReligionThe seasonal movements of the Mongol tribes brought them into contact with many religionsJudaism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam.The Mongols accepted religious pluralismMongol khans were thought to represent the Sky God, who transcended all cultures and religions;khans were thus conceived of as universal rulers who both transcended and used the various religions of their subjects.
8 I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 B. The Mongol ConquestsGenghis Khanunder the leadership of Genghis Khan the Mongols conquered all of North China and were threatening the Southern Song.the Mongol realms were united, all recognized the authority of the Great Khan in Mongolia.
9 I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 Khubilai Khan and the Yuan Dynastydeclared himself Great Khan in 1265,the other Mongol khans refused to accept himKhubilai founded the Yuan Empire, with its capital at Beijing in 1271;in 1279, he conquered the Southern Song.After 1279, the Yuan attempted to extend its control to Southeast Asia.Annam and Champa were forced to pay tribute to the Yuanan expedition to Java ended in failure.
10 I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 3. Mongol Conqueststhat may have contributed to the Mongols’ ability to conquer such vast territories:Technology & Tactics- superior horsemanship- better bowstechnique of following a volley of arrows with a deadly cavalry charge.Adaptabilitynew military techniques, adopt new military technology, and incorporate non-Mongol soldiers into their armies;Reputationslaughtering all those who would not surrenderability to take advantage of rivalries among their enemies.
11 I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 C. Overland Trade and the PlagueTradeThe Mongol conquests opened overland trade routesbrought about an unprecedented commercial integration of Eurasia.SilkPorcelainThe growth of long-distance trade under the Mongols led to significant transfer of military and scientific knowledge among Europe, the Middle East, China, Iran, and Japan.- First passports- Marco PoloDiseasesthe bubonic plague also spread over the trade routes of the Mongol Empire.The plague spread from China, to Central Asia and from there to the Mediterranean world along trade routes.
12 What were some of the effects of Mongol conquest of Eurasia? Warm Up:What were some of the effects of Mongol conquest of Eurasia?
13 II. The Mongols & Islam A. Mongol Rivalry 1. Religious Tensions in Central AsiaIn the 1260s the Il-khan Mongol Empire controlled parts of Armenia and all of Azerbaijan, Mesopotamia, and Iran.Relations between the Buddhist/shamanist Il-khan Mongols and their Muslim subjects were tensethe Mongols had murdered the last Abbasid caliphMongol religious beliefs and customs were contrary to those of Islam.
14 II. The Mongols & Islam 2. Inter-Mongolian Conflict At the same time, Russia was under the domination of the Golden Hordeled by Genghis Khan’s grandson Batuwho had converted to Islamannounced his intention to avenge the last caliph.This led to the first conflict between Mongol domains.
15 II. The Mongols & Islam Results European leaders attempted to make an alliance with the Il-khans to drive out MuslimsSyria, Lebanon, and Palestine,the Il-khans sought European help in driving the Golden Horde out of the Caucasus.These plans for an alliance never happened because the Il-khan ruler Ghazan converted to Islam in 1295.
16 II. The Mongols & Islam B. Islam and the State 1. Mongol Taxation The goal of the Il-khan State was to collect as much tax revenue as possible, which it did through a tax farming system.Short Term:tax farming system was able to deliver large amounts of grain, cash and silk.long term:- over-taxation led to increases in the price of grain, a shrinking tax base, and, by 1295, a severe economic crisis.
17 II. The Mongols & Islam 2. Attempts at Reform Attempts to end the economic crisistax reduction programsintroduction of paper moneyfailed to avert a depression that lasted until 1349.Thus the Il-khan domains fragmented- Mongol nobles fought each other for diminishing resources- Mongols from the Golden Horde attacked and divided the Il-khan Empire.
18 II. The Mongols & Islam 3. Timur As the Il-khan Empire and the Golden Horde declinedTimur, the last Central Asian conqueror, built the Jagadai Khanate in central and western Eurasia.Timur’s descendants, the Timurids, ruled the Middle East for several generations
19 II. The Mongols & Islam C. Culture and Science in Islamic Eurasia Literaturethe historian Juvaini wrote the first comprehensive account of the rise of the Mongols under Genghis Khan.Juvaini’s work inspired the work of Rashid al-Din, who produced a history of the world that was published in a number of beautifully illustrated editions.- Rashid al-Din, a Jew converted to Islam who served as adviser to the Il-khan ruler, was a good example of the cosmopolitanism of the Mongol world.The Timurids also supported notable historians including the Moroccan Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406).
20 II. The Mongols & Islam 2. Science Muslims under Mongol rulership also made great strides in astronomy, calendar-making, and the prediction of eclipses.- Their innovations included the use of epicycles to explain the movement of the moon around the earth,- the invention of more precise astronomical instruments,- collection of astronomical data from all parts of the Islamic world and China for predicting eclipses with greater accuracy.
21 II. The Mongols & Islam 3. Math Muslim scholars adapted the Indian numerical system,devised the method for indicating decimal fractions,calculated the value of pi more accurately than had been done in classical times.Muslim advances in science, astronomy, and mathematics were passed along to Europe- had a significant effect on the development of European science and mathematics.
22 Warm Up:Describe advances that were made during Mongol rule.
23 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia Russia and Rule from AfarMongol Rule in RussiaAfter the defeat of the Kievan Rus,the Mongols of the Golden Horde made their capital at the mouth of the Volga,- which was also the end of the overland caravan route from Central Asia.the Mongols ruled Russia “from afar,”- leaving the Orthodox Church in place- and using the Russian princes as their agents.the main goal of the Golden Horde was to extract as much tax revenue as possible from their subjects.
24 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia Rise of MoscowPrince Alexander of Novgorod had assisted the Mongols in their conquest of Russia,As a result, the Mongols favored Novgorod and Moscow (ruled by Prince Alexander’s brother).Mongol conquest led to devastation of the Ukrainian countrysidecaused the Russian population to shift from Kiev toward Novgorod and Moscow,Moscow emerged as the new center of the Russian civilization.
25 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia Effects of Mongol DominationHistorians Debate:Negative effect on Russia,bringing economic depression and cultural isolationThe Kievan state was already declining when the Mongols came,- over-taxation of Russians under Mongol rule was the work of the Russian princes,- Russia was isolated by the Orthodox church,- the structure of Russian government did not change drastically under Mongol rule.
26 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia End of Mongol Rule in RussiaIvan III, the prince of Moscow, ended Mongol rule in 1480 and adopted the title of tsar.
27 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia New States in Eastern Europe and AnatoliaEurope DividedEurope was dividedthe political forces of the papacy and those of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II ( ).As a result,Eastern Europe—particularly Hungary and Poland—faced the Mongol attacks alone.
28 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia Teutonic KnightsGerman speaking Christian order of knights“Northern Crusade”Goal was to Christianize the Slavic population of Northern EuropeDefeated by Mongols and Alexander Nevskii in 1242
29 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia Mongol Conquest in EuropeThe Mongol armies that attacked Europe were actually an international forceincluding Mongols, Turks, Chinese, Iranians, and Europeansled by Mongol generals.“Mongol” armies drove to the outskirts of Vienna, striking fear into the hearts of the Europeansthe Mongols withdrew in December 1241 so that the Mongol princes could return to Mongolia- elect a successor to the recently deceased Great Khan Ogodei.
30 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia Cultural ExchangeDespite widespread fear of Mongol invasions, Europeans did learn from their contact with the Mongols- Diplomatic passports, coal mining, movable type, advanced metallurgy, mathematics, gunpowder, and canons
32 Read: Journey to the Land of the Tartars The Human Record, pagesHow does William of Rubruck characterize the Mongol lifestyle?Describe the Mongol diet. Analyze why the Mongols eat what and how they do?How does William of Rubruck characterize the status of Mongol women?Based on this evidence, do you think that Rubruck had a positive or negative attitude toward to Mongols? Be specific in supporting your conclusion.
33 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia LithuaniaMaintained independence by cooperating with MongolsPeriod of political centralization and military strengtheningDominated neighbors, Poland and the Teutonic Knights
34 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia The BalkansIndependent well organized Kingdoms arose in uncertainty of Mongol chaos and Byzantine collapseSerbiaArchbishop became an independent patriarchKing Stephan Dushan ( ) crowned “Tsar of the Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians and Albanians”Kingdom disappeared after defeat by the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389
35 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia 7. The Ottoman EmpireEstablished a state in AnatoliaTook advantage of declining power of Mongols and the ByzantinesCaptured Constantinople in 1453.
36 IV. Mongol Domination in China The Yuan Empire ( )Conquest ( )Mongols conquered the Jin, Tanggut and Southern Song DynastiesIn 1271, Khublia Khan declared himself emperor of a unified China- Yuan Dynasty
37 Read: Description of the World The Human Record: PagesAnswer questions #1-4
38 Warm Up:What impact did the Mongols have on trade along the Silk Road?
40 IV. Mongol Domination in China Mongol adapt Chinese PracticesKubilai Khan gave his oldest son a Chinese nameConfucian scholars participated in education of the Khan’s childrenBuddhist and Daoist leaders invited to court
41 IV. Mongol Domination in China BejingYuan Dynasty capital cityTerminus (end) of silk RoadCreated closed Imperial complex- The “Forbidden City”More Chinese than Mongolian
43 IV. Mongol Domination in China UnificationMongols unified China- Had been divided among Tangutt, Jin and Southern Song EmpiresEach had different languages, writing systems, forms of government and cultureThe Mongols encouraged traditional Chinese government and culturePermanent reunification of China
44 IV. Mongol Domination in China 5. Social RankingLegally defined based of race and function1) Mongols- Warriors2) Central Asians and Middle Easterners- Census takers and tax collectors3) Northern Chinese4) Southern Chinese
45 IV. Mongol Domination in China 6. Mongol GovernmentChina divided into provinces- Government officials centrally appointedTax farmingUse of Western Asian officialsCensusTax collectingConfucianism weakenedStatus of merchants and doctors elevated
46 IV. Mongol Domination in China 7. Trade and communicationHorse based courier system maintained close communication within empireRoads were policed and safeChina reconnected to the Silk Roadcities and ports prosperedtrade recoveredmerchants flourished
47 IV. Mongol Domination in China 8. Urban Lifeflourishing mercantile economy led the Chinese gentry elite to move into the citieswhere a lively urban culture of popular entertainment,vernacular literature,and the Mandarin dialect of Chinese developed
48 IV. Mongol Domination in China 9. Rural Lifecotton growing, spinning, and weaving were introduced to mainland China from Hainan IslandMongols encouraged the construction of irrigation systemsfarmers in the Yuan were overtaxed and brutalized while dams and dikes were neglected
49 What were some of the effects of Mongol rule on China? Warm Up:What were some of the effects of Mongol rule on China?
51 IV. Mongol Domination in China 10. Effects of Mongol RuleYuan period China’s population declined by perhaps as much as 40 percent,with northern China seeing the greatest loss of population,while the Yangzi Valley actually saw a significant increase.Possible reasons for this pattern include:warfare, the flooding of the Yellow River, north-south migration, and the spread of diseases, including the bubonic plague in the 1300s.
52 IV. Mongol Domination in China B. Scientific and Cultural Exchange1. Exchange of GoodsBetween Yuan China and Il-khan IranChina sent silks and porcelain westMuslims oversaw engineering projects and weapons manufacturing of Yuan armies
53 IV. Mongol Domination in China Exchange of IdeasChinese ideas and technology- Astronomy, herbal medicineIranian ideas and technology- Observatory, doctors and medical text
54 IV. Mongol Domination in China Fall of the Yuan EmpireCollapseInfighting among Mongol princesFarmer rebellionsZhu Yuanzhang led a military campaign that destroyed the Yuan EmpireFounded the Ming dynasty
55 IV. Mongol Domination in China LegacyCultural diversityMongols, Muslims Jews and Christians remained in ChinaMongols returned to MongoliaSense of Mongol unity
56 V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 Korea from the Mongols to the Yi, ( )1. Mongol DominationKorea’s leaders initially resisted the Mongol invasionsgave up in 1258 when the king of Koryo surrendered and joined his family to the Mongols by marriage.The Koryo kings then fell under the influence of the Mongols,Korea profited from exchange with the Yuan in which new technologies:including cotton, gunpowder, astronomy, calendar making, and celestial clocks were introduced.
57 V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 Koryo Collapseshortly after the fall of the Yuanreplaced by the Yi dynasty.the Yi reestablished local identityrestored the status of Confucian scholarship while maintaining Mongol administrative practices and institutions.
58 V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 3. Yi dynastyTechnological innovations of the Yi period include:the use of moveable type in copper frames, meteorological science, a local calendar, the use of fertilizer, and the engineering of reservoirs.The growing of cash crops, particularly cotton, became common during the Yi period.
59 V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 Military TechnologyThe Koreans were innovators in military technology.Among their innovations were:patrol ships with cannon mounted on them, gunpowder arrow-launchers, and armored ships.
60 V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 Political Transformation in JapanAttempted Mongol ConquestThe first (unsuccessful) Mongol invasion of Japan in 1274 made the decentralized local lords of Kamakura Japan develop a greater sense of unitythe shogun took steps to centralize planning and preparation for the expected second assault.The second Mongol invasion (1281) was defeated by a combination of Japanese defensive preparations and a typhoon- Kamikaze – Divine Wind .The Kamakura regime continued to prepare for further invasions.As a result:- the warrior elite consolidated their position in Japanese society,- trade and communication within Japan increased,- but the Kamakura government found its resources strained by the expense of defense preparations.
61 V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 2. Collapse of the Kamakura ShogunateThe Kamakura shogunate was destroyed in a civil warthe Ashikaga shogunate was established in 1338.The Ashikaga period was characterized by a relatively weak shogunal state and strong provincial lordswho sponsored the development of markets, religious institutions, schools, increased agricultural production, and artistic creativity.
62 V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 Decentralization in JapanAfter the Onin war of 1477,the shogunate exercised no powerthe provinces were controlled by independent regional lords who fought with each other.The regional lords also carried out trade with continental Asia.
63 V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 The Emergence of VietnamPolitical DivisionVietnam was divided between two states:- the Chinese-influenced Annam in the north- the Indian-influenced Champa in the south.after the fall of the Yuan Empire, they began to fight with each other.
64 V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 2. Independence and UnificationThe Ming Dynasty ruled Annam through a puppet government for almost thirty years in the early 15th century- threw off Ming control in 1428.By 1500 Annam had completely conquered Champa- established a Chinese-style government over all of Vietnam.