Presentation on theme: "World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 12 Western Eurasia, 1200 - 1500 C.E."— Presentation transcript:
World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 12 Western Eurasia, C.E.
Objectives Be able to account for the magnitude and speed of the Mongol conquests. Be able to describe the benefits that resulted from the integration of Eurasia in the Mongol Empire. Be able to compare and contrast the effects of Mongol rule on Russia and the lands of Islam with the effects on East Asia. Be able to identify points of continuity and discontinuity in the transition from Mongol to Ming rule of China.
The Rise of the Mongols Genghis Khan –supreme leader –Temujin early learnings –charisma of personal strength –religious tolerance –no mercy –versatility Mongols –nomads from steppes of C.Asia –key to movement long-term trends pressures
The Rise of the Mongols Nomadism CE –way of life forced by scarcity of resources pastures, water slavery and tribute –labor and currency –traits superb horsemen –shooting arrows –replacement of chariots centralized decision-making –decision ratification arranged marriages / alliances –women »negotiation / management alliance building
The Rise of the Mongols Trade and Communication –great cultural diversity –spread of religious ideas shamanism politics / religious association –universal rulership legitimate conquests claim superiority over religious leaders –iron bridles, stirrups, wagons, bridges –settled agriculturalists mutual dependence conflict vs. trade relations
Mongol Conquests Genghis Khan –C. Asia, Middle East, Russia tribute Batu –Russia Ogodei –Tanggut and Jin –1241 Reasons for Success –horsemanship; superior bows Mamluk forces –flaming arrows; catapults –threat of slaughter –inclusive armies
Overland Trade Textile Manufacture –silk westward expansion Eastern motifs to West –Mongol trade route control merchants, missionaries political ambassadors –paisa –travel literature insights to Eurasia –Marco Polo –ambition for Asian routes image of inexhaustible wealth –plague great pandemic ( )
Fall and Rise of Islam, Il’khan –Mesopotamia and Iran –little Muslim exposure Buddhist Golden Horde –southern Russia –allied with Muslim Turks Batu conversion Issues –Abbasid caliph –Caucasus Western alliance Ghazan conversion –forced conversion
Islam and the State Il-khan Economic Goal –peaceful, maximum tax revenue –tax farming tax-collecting contracts short-term –good: minimum overhead long-term –bad:land bankruptcy –govt. land appropriation »shrinking tax base Ghazan –new method of management paper money no Middle East confidence depression Rise of C. Asian Timurs
Art and Science in Islamic Eurasia Ilkhans and Timurids –intellectual developments Iran to China shared artistic trends; politics –strong effects on Europeans Juvaini –1st to write history of Mongols Rashid al-Din –Il-khan prime minister –attempt at world history Europe and China Nasir al-Din –algebra and trigonometry –astronomy; planetary revolution –Nicolas Copernicus
Maraga –world center for eclipse prediction –amass astronomical data from entire empire Spain, Byzantine, India, China European numeral transition –adaptation of Indian numeral system –fractions idea from China precise pi calculation Art and Science in Islamic Eurasia
Regional Definition In Response to the Mongols Mongols Affected Regions –cities vs. countryside Russia –Batu (1230 CE) rule from Crimea –successful winter campaigns –no united resistance Russian Orthodox Church –granted great privileges reconciliation –distance = church survival –church = Russian identity independence
Russian Princes –tax collectors / census takers –Alexander Nevskii better to submit Moscow –dominant political center –destruction of Kievan countryside Ivan III –prince of Moscow ( ) –tsar (1480) Regional Definition In Response to the Mongols
Centralization in Europe and Anatolia Papacy vs. Holy Roman Emperor Western Europe –Holy Land question –Frederick II (Hohenstaufen) Eastern Europe –Hungary / Poland defense –Teutonic Knights Christianization colonization –Lake Chud end of northern Crusades –multinational force 1241 CE
Centralization in Europe and Anatolia Trade Routes –replace terror with awe –inexhaustible wealth Technology –gunpowder; coal mining –metallurgy; bronze cannons –mathematics; diplomatic passports Negatives –plunder of the countryside –spread of the plague Rise of the Ottoman Turks –conquest of Constantinople (1453)