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The Mongol Conquests From Internet: http://www.owassops.org/webpages/gyankey/regadvha ndouts.cfm?subpage=174609
The Mongol Conquests The Mongols, a nomadic people from the steppe, conquer settled societies across much of Asia.
Nomads of the Asian Steppe Geography of the Steppe –Steppe—dry grassland of Eurasia—provides home for nomads. –Two main expanses: Central Asia to eastern Europe, and Mongolia. –Steppe has little rain, dramatic seasonal temperature differences.
The Nomadic Way of Life –Steppe nomads are pastoralists—herd domesticated animals. –Way of life teaches Asian nomads to be skilled horse riders. –Nomads travel in clans—kin groups are linked by a common ancestor.
Steppe Nomads and Settled Societies –Nomads and people living in settled communities often interact. –Some interactions are peaceful, as in trade. –Sometimes nomads raid towns and cities to seize wealth and goods. –Strong state or empire could protect its lands from these invasions.
The Rise of the Mongols Genghis Khan Unites the Mongols –About 1200, Genghis Khan—”universal ruler”—unites Mongols. –In early 1200s, he begins a campaign of conquest. –By 1225, Genghis Khan controls central Asia.
Genghis the Conqueror –A brilliant organizer and strategist. –Uses brutality to terrorize his enemies and force surrenders.
The Mongol Empire Death and Succession –Genghis Khan dies in 1227. –Successors continue conquests for 50 years. –The Mongols conquer territory from China to Poland.
The Mongol Empire, Continued The Khanates –In east, Mongols conquer northern China and invade Korea. –In west, Mongols take Kiev and threaten Vienna and Venice. –In 1250s, Mongols turn their attention to Persia. –By 1260, Mongol Empire split into khanates of four regions.
The Mongol Empire, Continued Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia & China) Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia) Chagatai Khanate (Central Asia) Ilkhanate (Persia)
The Mongols as Rulers –Mongol rulers are tolerant of other peoples and cultures. –Some Mongols adopt local ways, leading to a split among khanates. The Mongol Peace –Peaceful period from mid-1200s to mid-1300s is called Pax Mongolica. –There was much east-west trade and exchange of ideas during this period.
II. Early Conquests Why so successful? –Highly organized and trained –Fighting units, called tumens, consisted of 10,000 soldiers, most on horseback –Gifted strategist – would often trick/surprise enemy –Cruelty as a weapon – believed in terrifying enemies into surrendering –If city fought back, would be destroyed, people killed/sold into slavery
III. Mongol Empire Genghis established capital at Karakorum on steppes north of China Summoned scholars from all corners of empire Created government framework based on both Muslim and Chinese ideas/traditions Creation of written Mongol language for recordkeeping and standardization of laws
III. Mongol Empire Mongol rule helped to stabilize some areas – production and trade flourished between East and West –Period from mid-13 th to mid-14 th century called Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace) Genghis died in 1227 –Third son, Ogedei, elected grand khan – expanded empire to include Russia, much of the Islamic world, and China
III. Continued… Divide and conquered –Mongol empire divided into four regions, or Khanates, each ruled by a descendant of Chinggis Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China) Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia) The Ilkhanate (Persia) Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia)
Mongols and The Islamic Heartlands Mongols captured and destroyed Baghdad in 1258 –Murdered last Abbasi Khalifa, along with 800,000 more people (supposedly) –Left Muslim empire without a central authority Will eventually lead to 3-way split: Ottomans, Mughals, Safawi
Mongols and The Islamic Heartlands Mamluks (led by Baibars) in Egypt led rebellion against Mongols –Cooperated with Christian crusaders in Palestine Mongols were forced to retreat, but remained in control of a vast territory –From edges of Byzantium to Oxus River in central Asia
Decline of the Mongol Empire Mongol rule collapses in Persia in the 1330s; Mongol rule collapses in Central Asia in the 1370s. By the end of the 1300s, only Mongol rule in Russia remains, the Golden Horde.