Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath,"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 12 Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath, 1200-1500 AP World History
2I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200-1600 A. Nomadism in Central and Inner AsiaMongols were strongly hierarchical.Mongols had complex federations tied to together by marriage alliances.Their seasonal movements brought them into contact with all types of religions.They accepted religious pluralism.Mongol khans were thought to represent the Sky God.
3Mongol empire – Largest land empire ever created (from Korea to Poland)
4Mongol empire – Largest land empire ever created (from Korea to Poland)
5B. The Mongol Conquests, 1215-1283 Genghis Khan conquered Northern China.The khanates of the Golden Horde, Jagadai, and the Il-Khans all swore allegiance to Genghis.When Kublai Khan took over, the Jagadai Khan refused to accept him.Kublai established the Yuan empire and in 1279 he conquered the Southern Song.The Mongols were able to conquer a vast amount of territory because of their superior horsemanship, better bows, technique of following a volley of arrows with a cavalry charge, using non-Mongol soldiers, reputation for slaughtering those who would not surrender, and their ability to take advantage of rivalries among their enemies.
19II. The Mongols and Islam, 1260-1500 A. Mongol RivalryIn the 1260s the Il-Khan Mongols murdered the Abbasid Caliph because of religious differences.Batu Khan of the Golden Horde in Russia, converted to Islam and vowed to attack the Il-Khan region.Europeans attempted to help the non-Muslim Il-Khans repel the Golden Horde Mongols, but the Il-Khan ruler Ghazan became a Muslim in 1295.
21B. Islam and the StateThe goal of the Il-Khan state was to collect as much tax revenue as possible.The tax farming system was able to deliver large taxes, but over taxation led to inflation and a severe economic crisis.Attempts to solve this crisis involved using paper money, but depression lasted until 1349 when the Golden Horde destroyed the Il-Khan empire.As the Golden Horde and the Il-Khan empires declined in the 14th century, Timur built the Jagadai Khanate and his descendents, the Timurids, ruled the Middle East for several generations.
26C. Culture and Science in Islamic Eurasia Juvaini wrote the first comprehensive work of the rise of the Mongols under Genghis Khan.Rashid al-Din published a history of the world.Muslims under Mongol leadership made great strides in astronomy, calendar making, and the predication of eclipses.Devised decimal fractions, calculated the value of pi, and had a significant effect on the development of European science and mathematics.
27Mongols were not only great conquers, they allowed their subjects to pursue intellectual interests.
28Muslim historian, Rashid al-Din’s, history of the world – Included history of Europe and China.
29Under Mongol leadership, the Muslim scholar Nasir al-Din made great strides in astronomy – small circles rotating within a large circle.
30III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia A. Russia and Rule from AfarThe Golden Horde used Russian princes to tax the people and kept the Orthodox Church in place.Favored Prince Alexander of Novogorod because he had aided in the Mongol conquest of Russia.Moscow emerged as the new center of the Russian civilization.Structure of government did not change under Mongol rule.In 1480 Ivan III, the prince of Moscow, ended Mongol rule and adopted the title of Tsar.
31Prince Alexander Nevskii of Novogorod allied with the Mongols because Russia would be destroyed if he resisted, essentially saving Russia. (right - example of Russian man at arms)
32Depiction of Russian Prince Alexander Nevskii preparing for battle against the German Teutonics in the 1930s Russian film of the same name. (Propaganda)
34Ivan “the Terrible” – First Russian prince to fight the Golden Horde Ivan “the Terrible” – First Russian prince to fight the Golden Horde. He adopted the title of Tsar.
35B. New States in Eastern Europe and Anatolia Europe was divided and the states of Hungary and Poland faced Mongol attacks alone.Mongol armies drove to the outskirts of Vienna, but withdrew in 1241 because they needed to elect a successor to he deceased Khan Ogodei.Europeans then initiated a variety of diplomatic and trade overtures toward the Mongols.
36Mongol invasions and the bubonic plague caused Europeans to question their religious beliefs. After Mongol power began to wane in the 13th and 14th centuries, strong centralized states such as Lithuania and the Balkan Kingdoms began to assert their control over their neighbors.Anatolia functioned as a route by which Islamic culture spread to Europe.The Ottomans were kept in check by the Timurids, but expanded eastward and conquered Constantinople in 1453.
37Ottoman Turks under Mehmet II on his way to conquer the Byzantine empire. (notice the 2-ton cannon)
39IV. Mongol Domination in China, 1271-1368 A. The Yuan Empire,Kublai Khan practiced Chinese traditions of government.Unified the Tanggut, Jin, and Southern Song empires.Made innovations of tax farming, Western Asian Muslims as officials, legally defined status groups, status of merchants and doctors was elevated, and Confucians lowered.China’s cities and ports prospered, trade recovered, and merchants flourished.Chinese population dropped as much as 40%, probably because of the spread of disease, warfare, infanticide, and the flooding of the Yellow River.
40Mongols unified the Tanggut, Jin, and Song empires into the Yuan dynasty. (unified China as we know it)
42B. Cultural and Scientific Exchange China imported Il-Khan science and technology.Il-Khans imported Chinese scholars and texts.Iranian astronomical knowledge, algebra, trigonometry, Islamic and Persian medical texts, seeds, and formulas were brought to China.
43C. The Fall of the Yuan Empire Chinese leader Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Mongols and established the Ming Empire.The Mongols still held Central Eurasia and were able to disrupt overland trade to threaten the Ming.The Ming were also threatened by the Jurchens
44Ming dynasty began after the Yuan fell and the Mongols were expelled.
45Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Mongols and established the Ming Empire.
46The Early Ming Empire, 1368-1500 A. Ming China on a Mongol Foundation Zhu Yuanzhang made great efforts to reject the culture of the Mongols, close off trade relations with Central Asia and the Middle East and reestablish Confucian ideology.The Ming still used hereditary professional categories, the Mongol calendar, and Beijing as the capital.Mongols continued to serve in the army.
47The Muslim eunuch admiral Zheng He launched a series of expeditions to Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean to reestablish trade links and bring these areas under Chinese control or influence.However, no real trade relations were established and the voyages were non-profitable.The voyages were made more for the Yongle Emperor to prove his worth.The Zheng He voyages were the last time that the state sponsored such voyages.
48Muslim eunuch admiral Zheng He launched a series of expeditions to Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean.
51B. Technology and Population Chinese lost the knowledge to make high-quality bronze and steel.Korea and Japan moved ahead of Ming China in technological innovation.However, the Ming period was a time of great wealth, consumerism, and cultural brilliance.The novels, Water Margin and Romance of the Three Kingdoms, porcelain making, furniture, lacquered screens, and silk all contributed to this cultural brilliance.
55VI. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia, 1200-1500 A. Korea from the Mongols to the Yi,The Korean King of Koryo joined the Mongols by marriage in 1258.Koryo collapsed when the Yuan dynasty fell apart and it was replaced by the Korean Yi dynasty.The Yi dynasty reestablished local identity and restored the status of Confucian scholarship while maintaining Mongol administrative practices and institutions.The Yi had technological innovations of moveable copper frames, meteorological science, local calendar, use of fertilizer, engineering of reservoirs, ships with canon, gunpowder arrow launchers, and armored ships.
56Gunpowder arrow launcher of the Korean Yi dynasty.
57B. Political Transformation in Japan; 1274-1500 Two Mongol invasions of Japan failed because of the Kamikaze winds and strong defensive preparations.The Kamakura shogunate was destroyed in a civil war and the Ashikaga shogunate was established in 1338.Black ink painting, sand gardens, and the tea ceremony were adopted by the Yoshimasa shogunate and they were influenced by Zen Buddhism.The Onin War of 1477 showed that the shogunate had no real power and the provincial lords fought each other for power.
59C. The Emergence of Vietnam, 1200-1500 Vietnam was divided into two states:Chinese influenced Annam in the northIndian influenced Champa in the south.The Mongols extracted tribute from both states.The Ming ruled Annam for almost thirty years in the early 15th century, but Annam overthrew them and they completely conquered Champa.Established a Chinese style government over all of Vietnam.The dominant faith of Annam was Mahayana Buddhism which distinguished them from other Southeast Asian groups who practiced Theraveda Buddhism.