Presentation on theme: "1800-1815. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic- Republican Party. Jefferson narrowly defeated John Adams in the election of."— Presentation transcript:
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic- Republican Party. Jefferson narrowly defeated John Adams in the election of 1800 thus ending the “Federalist Decade.”
The election of 1800 marked a watershed (key turning point) in American political history. It is often called “the Revolution of 1800” because there was a peaceful transfer of political power between the victorious Democratic- Republicans and the defeated Federalists. In his inaugural address, Jefferson stressed that the “essential principles” of American government were above party politics when he reminded his fellow countrymen, “We are all Republicans – we are all Federalists.”
Jefferson’s electoral victory marked both a peaceful transfer of power and a transition to a new set of political ideals. Jefferson promised to practice republican simplicity. He carefully avoided the formal ceremonies that characterized the Federalist administrations. For example, White House guests were encouraged to shake hands with the president rather than bowing, as had been the Federalist practice.
Republican simplicity meant more than just a new code of presidential etiquette. In his inaugural address, Jefferson promised “a wise and frugal government.” Believing that the government governs best that governs least, Jefferson cut the budget, fired federal tax collectors, eliminated the tax on whiskey, and reduced both the army and the navy. Jefferson wanted America to become an agrarian republic. He strongly believed that farmers were the backbone of American society because they were the nation’s most productive and trustworthy citizens. Jefferson believed that freedom of speech is essential in a republic. He urged Congress to repeal the Alien and Sedition Acts and pardoned those who had been convicted.
Westerners depended upon the Mississippi River to ship their goods to New Orleans where they were reloaded aboard ocean-going vessels for shipment to the East Coast or to foreign ports. Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain granted the United States the right of deposit at New Orleans. However, in 1802 the Spanish revoked this privilege. To make matters worse, Spain ceded Louisiana back to France.
Napoleon dreamed of restoring the French Empire in America. However, led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, slaves on the West Indian island of Santo Domingo successfully revolted against French rule. Napoleon then decided to abandon Santo Domingo and sell Louisiana to the United States for about $15 million. Napoleon’s offer to sell Louisiana presented Jefferson with a difficult dilemma. The Constitution did not expressly grant the President or Congress the power to acquire foreign territory. As an outspoken proponent of a strict interpretation of the Constitution, how could Jefferson approve the purchase of Louisiana? Jefferson’s advisors argued that his presidential power to make treaties gave him the implied power to purchase territory. Fearing that the capricious (fickle) Napoleon might change his mind, Jefferson relented and the Senate overwhelmingly approved the Louisiana Purchase.
The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States. Jefferson optimistically believed that the purchase would fulfill his vision of enabling American to become an agrarian republic that would become an Empire of Liberty.
Jefferson sponsored the Lewis and Clark expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory. The expedition accomplished the following goals: It strengthened American claims to the Oregon territory. It added to the knowledge about northwestern America. It mapped and explored the Mississippi River and the Columbia River.
As Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801-1835, John Marshall issued a number of landmark decisions that strengthened the power of the federal government, upheld the supremacy of federal law over state legislatures, and promoted business enterprise.
Marshall established the principle of judicial review in the famous case of Marbury v. Madison. Judicial review gave the Supreme Court the authority to determine the constitutionality of congressional acts.
Jefferson liked to describe his election as the “Revolution of 1800.” The election of 1800 did mark a peaceful transfer of power. But to what extent did Jefferson redirect federal policies away from Hamiltonian principles? Economic policy Although he opposed its creation, Jefferson accepted Hamilton’s national bank as an essential convenience. Jefferson pleased frontier farmers by repealing the whiskey tax. Jefferson reduced federal spending by cutting the size of both the army and the navy.
Domestic policy Jefferson favored “strict” interpretation of the Constitution. However, he proved to be a flexible and pragmatic (practical) leader when he used Hamilton’s doctrine of implied powers to justify the Louisiana Purchase. Unlike Hamilton, Jefferson believed that the public could be trusted to govern itself. He supported public education and the expansion of voting rights to more white male citizens. Jefferson thus laid the foundation for the expansion of suffrage during the Jackson administration.
Foreign policy Although he was an ardent supporter of the French Revolution, Jefferson continued Washington’s policy of remaining neutral and avoiding foreign wars. In 1807, Jefferson persuaded Congress to pass an Embargo Act which stopped all exports of American goods to Europe. Jefferson once again drew upon Hamilton’s doctrine of implied powers by claiming that the government’s power to regulate commerce could be used to justify imposing an embargo. Although the embargo failed to force the British to abandon their practice of impressing Americans into the royal navy, it did inflict economic hardship on American farmers and merchants.
What happened? The United States tried to avoid war with Great Britain and France by following a policy of neutrality. Angered by the British practice of impressing American seamen into the Royal Navy, a group of “War Hawks” in Congress demanded war. In June of 1812, President Madison asked Congress to declare war against Great Britain. The war proved to be indecisive. The United States controlled the Great Lakes but failed to conquer Canada. The British burned Washington, D.C., but suffered a major defeat at the Battle of New Orleans. The American navy won a number of duels with British vessels.
What caused the War of 1812? The British practice of impressment violated American neutrality and insulted national pride. Led by Henry Clay, the War Hawks supported war to drive the British from Canada and to remove the Indian threat from the frontier.
Why should you remember the War of 1812? The Battle of New Orleans restored American pride and transformed Andrew Jackson into a national hero. The interruption of trade led to an increase in domestic manufacturing, thus promoting industrialization. New England merchants strongly opposed the War of 1812. Leading Federalists met at the Hartford Convention and proposed a number of constitutional amendments designed to limit the power of the federal government. However, the Hartford Convention contributed to the demise of the Federalist Party by making its leaders appear to be disloyal. The War of 1812 intensified a spirit of nationalism. The war “federalized” Madison who now supported rechartering the national bank and increasing tariffs to protect the nation’s “infant” industries from foreign competition.