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Presentation on theme: "Find Someone Who………… Goal = get as many signatures as possible! (1 person can only sign up to 2 times on your sheet)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Find Someone Who………… Goal = get as many signatures as possible! (1 person can only sign up to 2 times on your sheet)

2 What do you know?? Write a definition of anatomy and physiology (two separate definitions).

3 Objectives: Lesson 1 TSWBAT define anatomy and physiology and sub-divisions. TSWBAT evaluate how anatomy and physiology are closely related.

4 Overview of Anatomy Anatomy is…………. the study of the structure and shape of the body Includes both internal and external structures of the body

5 Andreas Vesalius- Father of Human Anatomy A Belgian physician, Andreas Vesalius, was the first to dissect human bodies to study anatomy. He wrote a book on human anatomy in 1538. This book was the first accurate description of the interior of the human body. 1514-1564

6 2 Main Divisions of Anatomy I. Gross Anatomy II. Microscopic Anatomy Concerned with those structures in the body large enough to be seen with the naked eye. A microscope or magnifying instrument is used to see very small structures in the body.

7 Forms of Gross Anatomy Surface – the study of general form and superficial markings Regional – focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body (head, neck, trunk) Systematic – study of the structure of organ systems (skeletal system) Developmental – describes the changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity Clinical – subspecialties in clinical practice (surgical anatomy)

8 Subdivisions of the Study of Anatomy: Microscopic Anatomy Cytology – study of the cell (simplest units of life) Histology – study of tissues

9 Physiology Physiology - the study of the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level. Physio = nature Ology = the study of

10 Sub-groups of Physiology Considers the operation of specific organ systems Cardiovascular physiology is the study of? Neurophysiology is the study of? Renal physiology is the study of? Respiratory physiology is the study of? Pathophysiology is the study of? Exercise physiology is the study of?

11 Relationship between Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy and Physiology are always related  All specific functions are performed by specific structures.  Structure therefore, determines function Example: A loss of a particular cell type brings on diabetes. Diabetes effects the system (Anatomy) and the function (Physiology).

12 Real world application – doctor visit Physicians normally use a combination of anatomical, physiological, chemical, and psychological information when they evaluate a patient When a patient presents symptoms; the physician will look at the structures affected (Gross anatomy) Collect a fluid or tissue sample (Microscopic anatomy) Evaluates your physiological processes by asking questions

13 Anatomy and Physiology Relationship An anatomist and a physiologist are asked to examine a car and report their findings. What would an anatomist do? What would a physiologist do?

14 Ticket out Describe how anatomy and physiology are closely related? How are they different? Use an example of an electronic device in your rationale.

15 Introduction to Anatomy – Lesson 2 TSWBAT list the levels of structural organization.

16 Levels of Structural Organization Chemical (or molecular level) Cellular Tissue Organ Organ System Organism

17 Levels of Structural Organization 1. Chemical – Atoms (smallest stable units of matter) combined to form molecules (complex shapes of two or more atoms). 2. Cellular – Molecules interact to form organelles. Organelles are components of cells (smallest living units in the body. 3. Tissue – Groups of similar cells that have a common function. (example – cardiac muscle cells)

18 Levels of Structural Organization 4. Organ – A structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs a specific function for the body (example – cardiac muscle tissue). 5. Organ System – A group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose (example – cardiovascular system; heart, blood, blood vessels).

19 Levels of Structural Organization 6. Organism – Made up of the organ systems. Highest level of structural organization (example – human).

20 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules 1 2 3 4 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems Atoms Molecules Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels Cardiovascular system Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1

21 Anatomy – 1.Hand in Homework – Folder on counter 2.Read Cell Article (do not write on)

22 2. Which levels of structural organization are you unable to see with your naked eye? 3.Which level of structural organization is composed of two or more different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function? 4. How are organs and tissues different? 1. Two or more atoms join together to form what organizational structures?

23 Intro to Anatomy – Lesson 3 TSWBAT to identify the 11 body systems and define the functions and components of each system.

24 Organ Systems of the Body - Skeletal  Protects body organs  Provides the framework for muscles  Forms blood cells  Stores minerals (calcium) Composed of: bones, cartilage, ligaments, and bone marrow

25 Organ Systems of the Body – Nervous  Directs immediate responses to stimuli  Coordinates or moderates activities of organ systems  Interprets sensory information Composed of: the brain, spinal cord, sense organs and nerves

26 Organ Systems of the Body - Lymphatic  Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood  Defends against infection and diseases Composed of: thymus, spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels

27 Organ Systems of the Body - Muscular  Provides movement  Support - Maintains posture - Produces heat Composed of: muscles and tendons

28 Organ Systems of the Body- Integumentary  Protects  Helps regulate body temperature  Provides sensory information Composed of: the skin, sweat glands, hair, and nails

29 Organ Systems of the Body - Digestive Composed of: the oral cavity, teeth, tongue, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas  Breaks down food into absorbable units  Absorbs and conserves water  Stores energy reserves

30 Organ Systems of the Body – Endocrine System Regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells. Not connected anatomically in the same way that parts of other organ systems are.  Composed of: Pineal gland, Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Thymus gland, Adrenal gland, Pancreas, Testis (male), Ovary (female)

31 Organ Systems of the Body - Respiratory  Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide  Produces sound for communication Composed of: the nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, larynx and lungs

32 Organ Systems of the Body - Cardiovascular  Distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials, including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide Composed of: the heart, blood, and blood vessels

33 Organ Systems of the Body- Urinary  Eliminates wastes from the body  Maintains the electrolyte balance and regulates the acid-base balance of the blood. Composed of: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

34 Organ Systems of the Body Female Reproductive  Composed of: mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina Main function is the production of offspring

35 Organ Systems of the Body Organ Systems of the Body Male Reproductive Main function is the production of offspring  Composed of: epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and vas deferens

36 System Cooperation Body systems must work together for humans to function properly: EX #1 – Integumentary system & Skeletal System…The skin protects all organs & bones, and also produces vitamin D. Vitamin D is used for proper absorption of calcium. Calcium is needed for proper bone growth/development. Not enough Vitamin D, not enough Calcium absorbed  weak/broken bones!

37 System Cooperation EX #2: Respiratory system & Circulatory system: Lungs take in oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide. Alveoli in the lungs give oxygen to red blood cells (hemoglobin) to carry to all parts of the body for respiration. If alveoi are affected, not enough oxygen is taken in and respiration slows  decrease in the amount of energy produced

38 Organ Systems Don’t Work Alone The respiratory system takes in oxygen and removes waste gases. The cardiovascular system is responsible for delivering the oxygen to all parts of our bodies.

39 Organ Systems Interrelationships  Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood  Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems Figure 1.2


41 Survival Need or Necessary Life Function? Metabolism Nutrients Reproduction Oxygen Water Maintaining Boundaries Excretion Normal Body Temperature Responsiveness Atmospheric Pressure Movement Growth Digestion

42 Intro to Anatomy – Lesson 4 TSWBAT identify the eight necessary life functions and five survival needs that are necessary for an organism to sustain life.

43 Necessary Life Functions and Survival Needs Organisms must be able to carry out various functions in order to maintain life. If any of these necessary functions are disrupted, the organism may not survive. Organisms have several survival needs that must be present in order to sustain life.

44 Necessary Life Functions I 1.Maintaining boundaries – the internal environment remains distinct from the external environment. A. Cellular level – accomplished by plasma membranes B. Organismal level – accomplished by the integumentary system

45 Necessary Life Functions I 2. Movement – locomotion, propulsion, and contractility I.E: All of the activities promoted by the muscular system as well as the movement of substances such as blood, food, and urine.

46 Necessary Life Functions I 3. Responsiveness (Irritability) – the body’s ability to sense changes in its environment and then react to them I.E. If you touch a hot burner you will involuntarily pull your hand away from the painful stimulus (fire). I.E. When the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood rises to dangerously high levels, your breathing rate speeds up to blow off the excess carbon dioxide.

47 Necessary Life Functions I 4.Digestion – breakdown of ingested food into simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood. 5.Metabolism – refers to all chemical reactions that occur within body cells. Regulates the ability to convert nutrients to energy. 6. Excretion – removal of wastes from the body 7. Reproduction – cellular and organismal levels  Cellular – an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells that may be used for body growth or repair  Organismal – sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person 8. Growth – increase in size of a body part or of the organism

48 5 Survival Needs5 Survival Needs – The goal of all body systems is to maintain life. Several factors need to be available for this to occur. 1. Nutrients Chemical substances used for energy and cell building. 2. Oxygen Needed for metabolic reactions (human cells can only survive for a few seconds without it).

49 5 Survival Needs 3. Water Provides the necessary environment for chemical reactions. Accounts for 60-80 percent of body weight. 4. Normal body temperature Necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life- sustaining rates. For good health, body temperature must be maintained at or around 98 degrees.

50 5 Survival Needs 5. Atmospheric pressure Required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs.

51 Check Point: 1. Having a fever, high blood pressure, or low blood sugar are all examples of what process being out of balance? 2. Reproduction can occur on two levels, they are? 3. The ability to keep the “inside” inside and the “outside” outside is an example of which necessary life function? 4. What is needed for metabolic reactions to occur? 5. What survival need provides energy for the body?

52 Answer to checkpoint 1. Responsiveness 2. Cellular or organismal 3. Maintenance of boundaries 4. Oxygen 5. Nutrients

53 Intro to Anatomy – Lesson 5 TSWBAT to define homeostasis and explain negative and positive feedback mechanisms.

54 Homeostasis - the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world Maintaining homeostasis is absolutely vital to an organism’s survival; failure to maintain homeostasis soon leads to illness or even death. Homeostasis

55 Homeostasis is disrupted by… STRESS!!! Stress can be ANY change in the environment! Both the nervous system & endocrine systems work to maintain homeostasis in the body.

56 Homeostatic Regulation Adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis Two general mechanisms are involved in homeostatic regulation: 1. Autoregulation – occurs when a cell, tissue, organ or organ system adjusts its activities automatically in response to some environmental change. 2. Extrinsic regulation – results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system; they control or adjust the activities of many other systems

57 Homeostatic Control Mechanisms If a variable produces a change in the body, control mechanisms are activated to regain homeostasis. Communication within the body is essential for homeostasis and is accomplished chiefly by the nervous and endocrine systems. The three interdependent components of control mechanisms are:  Receptor  Control center  Effector

58 Receptor – The first component A sensor that monitors and responds to changes (stimuli) in the environment Responds to stimuli by sending information to the control center (second component) Example: Thermometer of your thermostat of your AC/Heat source in your home

59 Control Center – Second Component Determines: A) Set point at which the variable is to be maintained B) Analyzes the information it receives C) Determines the appropriate response or course of action Example: Thermostat

60 Effector – Third component Provides the means for the control center’s response to the stimulus (cell or organ). Responds to the commands of the control center. The results of the response then feedback to influence the stimulus either by: 1) Depressing it (negative feedback) so that the whole control mechanism is shut off. -Or- 2) Enhancing it (positive feedback) so that the reaction continues at an even faster rate.



63 Negative Feedback  Most homeostatic control mechanisms are: negative feedback mechanisms  A way for counteracting an effect  In negative feedback systems, the output shuts off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity. Negative feedback regulates: 1)Heart rate 2)Blood pressure 3)Breathing rate 4)Blood levels of glucose 5)Body temperature

64 Negative Feedback System  Mechanism that receives a stimulus and reverses its effect to maintain equilibrium  Negative does NOT mean that it is “bad” for the body  NFB systems are the most common homeostasis measures used  EX: Stimulus – cold temperature  message is sent to the brain (hypothalamus)  response – shivering; muscles contract to produce heat

65 NEGATIVE FB LOOP Drop in Temp Shiver  Increase Body Temp Brain Skin CellsMuscles in the Skin

66 Negative Feedback Figure 1.5

67 Positive Feedback Examples: 1.Regulation of blood clotting 2.Child birth Figure 1.6 In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus

68 Positive Feedback System  Mechanism that receives a stimulus and enhances its effect  Positive does NOT mean that it is always “good” for the body  In the human body, only 2 PFB systems are helpful  (1) Release of oxytocin (hormone) during pregnancy/childbirth  (2) Increased blood flow to injury site

69 Positive FB Loop Paper Cut Increased Blood Flow to Form a Scab! Brain Blood Vessels Dilate & Increase Blood Flow Heart & Blood Vessels

70 Homeostatic Imbalance Homeostasis is so important that if the body’s normal equilibrium is not corrected, illness occurs. Feedback mechanisms may be overwhelmed or may be not functioning correctly (diabetes, clotting disorders)  Disorder – Any derangement or abnormality of function.  Disease – More specific term for illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms. This is called homeostatic imbalance.

71 1. What two organ systems are largely responsible for maintaining homeostasis? 2. What is the name for the body structure that responds to the control center signal in a feedback system? 3. Create and explain an example of negative feedback within the human body. Not one that has already been discussed in class. Check Point

72 Answers to Check Point 1) Nervous and endocrine systems 2) Effector

73 At the clinic A jogger has stepped in a pothole and sprained her ankle. What systems have suffered damage? A newborn baby is unable to hold down any milk. Examination reveals a developmental disorder in which the esophagus fails to connect to the stomach. What survival needs are most immediately threatened?

74 Answers to at the clinic 1. Skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, integumentary, and nervous systems. 2. The need for nutrients and water.

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