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1Find Someone Who…………Goal = get as many signatures as possible! (1 person can only sign up to 2 times on your sheet)
2What do you know??Write a definition of anatomy and physiology (two separate definitions).
3TSWBAT define anatomy and physiology and sub-divisions. Objectives: Lesson 1TSWBAT define anatomy and physiology and sub-divisions.TSWBAT evaluate how anatomy and physiology are closely related.
4the study of the structure and shape of the body Overview of AnatomyAnatomy is………….the study of the structure and shape of the bodyIncludes both internal and external structures of the body
5Andreas Vesalius- Father of Human Anatomy A Belgian physician, Andreas Vesalius, was the first to dissect human bodies to study anatomy.He wrote a book on human anatomy in This book was the first accurate description of the interior of the human body.
6II. Microscopic Anatomy 2 Main Divisions of AnatomyI. Gross AnatomyConcerned with those structures in the body large enough to be seen with the naked eye.II. Microscopic AnatomyA microscope or magnifying instrument is used to see very small structures in the body.
7Surface – the study of general form and superficial markings Forms of Gross AnatomySurface – the study of general form and superficial markingsRegional – focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body (head, neck, trunk)Systematic – study of the structure of organ systems (skeletal system)Developmental – describes the changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturityClinical – subspecialties in clinical practice (surgical anatomy)Systematic – organ systems (skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular)Developmental ie: embryology – the study of the developmental processes that occur in the first two months of developmentClinical – surgical
8Subdivisions of the Study of Anatomy: Microscopic Anatomy Cytology – study of the cell (simplest units of life)Cells are the simplest units of lifeCells are composed of chemical substances in various combinations, and our lives depend on the chemical processes occurring in the trillions of cells in our bodyTissues – group of specialized cells that work together to perform specific functionsHistology – study of tissues
9Physio = nature Ology = the study of PhysiologyPhysiology - the study of the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level.Physio = nature Ology = the study ofFunctions are complex and more difficult to examine than most anatomical structures
10Sub-groups of Physiology Considers the operation of specific organ systems Cardiovascular physiology is the study of? Neurophysiology is the study of? Renal physiology is the study of? Respiratory physiology is the study of? Pathophysiology is the study of? Exercise physiology is the study of?Cardio- study of heart function; Neuro – study of brain function; Renal – study of kidney function; Respiratory – study of lung function; Patho – study of the effects of diseases on organs and system functions ; Exercise – study of exercise effects on systems
11Relationship between Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy and Physiology are always relatedAll specific functions are performed by specific structures.Structure therefore, determines functionExample:A loss of a particular cell type brings on diabetes.Diabetes effects the system (Anatomy) and thefunction (Physiology).Doctor physical – Anatomy or Physiology??Examples of anatomy – examinationPhysiology – ask questions, observe movements, listening to sounds, taking temp/bp/pulse, blood and urine tests
12Real world application – doctor visit Physicians normally use a combination of anatomical, physiological, chemical, and psychological information when they evaluate a patientWhen a patient presents symptoms; the physician will look at the structures affected (Gross anatomy)Collect a fluid or tissue sample (Microscopic anatomy)Evaluates your physiological processes by asking questions
13Anatomy and Physiology Relationship An anatomist and a physiologist are asked to examine a car and report their findings. What would an anatomist do? What would a physiologist do?Anatomist – measure and photograph the parts of the car; take it apart and put it back together; explain its structural relationships (cylinders, pistons, wheels)Physiologist – note relationships among the components (how the transmission conveys a motion to the axles and wheels so that the car moves)
14Ticket outDescribe how anatomy and physiology are closely related? How are they different? Use an example of an electronic device in your rationale.
15Introduction to Anatomy – Lesson 2 TSWBAT list the levels of structural organization.
16Levels of Structural Organization Chemical (or molecular level)CellularTissueOrganOrgan SystemOrganism
17Levels of Structural Organization 1. Chemical – Atoms (smallest stable units of matter) combined to form molecules (complex shapes of two or more atoms).2. Cellular – Molecules interact to form organelles. Organelles are components of cells (smallest living units in the body.Even at the simplest level; form determines function (the functional properties of a particular molecule are Examples of tissue – cardiac muscle cells3. Tissue – Groups of similar cells that have a common function. (example – cardiac muscle cells)
18Levels of Structural Organization 4. Organ – A structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs a specific function for the body (example – cardiac muscle tissue).5. Organ System – A group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose (example – cardiovascular system; heart, blood, blood vessels).Organ example – cardiac muscle tissue in combination with connective tissue form the wall of the heartOrgan system example – cardiovascular system (blood, heart, blood vessels)
19Levels of Structural Organization 6. Organism – Made up of the organ systems. Highest level of structural organization (example – human).
20Levels of Structural Organization Smooth muscle cellMoleculesCellular level Cells are made up of molecules2Atoms1Chemical level Atoms combine to form moleculesSmooth muscle tissueHeart3Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cellsCardiovascular systemBlood vesselsEpithelial tissueSmooth muscle tissueBlood vessel (organ)6Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systemsConnective tissue4Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues5Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closelyFigure 1.1
21Hand in Homework – Folder on counter Anatomy –Hand in Homework – Folder on counterRead Cell Article (do not write on)
224. How are organs and tissues different? 1. Two or more atoms join together to form what organizational structures?2. Which levels of structural organization are you unable to see with your naked eye?3.Which level of structural organization is composed of two or more different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function?4. How are organs and tissues different?1. Molecules ; 2. Chemical and Cellular; 3. Organ 4. Organs are composed of 2 or more types of tissue and tissues are like cells that perform a common function
23Intro to Anatomy – Lesson 3 TSWBAT to identify the 11 body systems and define the functions and components of each system.
24Organ Systems of the Body - Skeletal Protects body organsProvides the framework for musclesForms blood cellsStores minerals (calcium)Composed of: bones, cartilage, ligaments, and bone marrow
25Organ Systems of the Body – Nervous Directs immediate responses to stimuliCoordinates or moderates activities of organ systemsInterprets sensory informationComposed of: the brain, spinal cord, sense organs and nerves
26Organ Systems of the Body - Lymphatic Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to bloodDefends against infection and diseasesComposed of: thymus, spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels
27Organ Systems of the Body - Muscular Provides movementSupport- Maintains posture- Produces heatComposed of: muscles and tendons
28Organ Systems of the Body- Integumentary ProtectsHelps regulate body temperatureProvides sensory informationComposed of: the skin, sweat glands, hair, and nails
29Organ Systems of the Body - Digestive Breaks down food into absorbable unitsAbsorbs and conserves waterStores energy reservesComposed of: the oral cavity, teeth, tongue, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
30Organ Systems of the Body – Endocrine System Not connected anatomically in the same way that parts of other organ systems are.Regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells.Composed of: Pineal gland, Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Thymus gland, Adrenal gland, Pancreas, Testis (male), Ovary (female)
31Organ Systems of the Body - Respiratory Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxideProduces sound forcommunicationComposed of: the nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, larynx and lungs
32Organ Systems of the Body - Cardiovascular Distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials, including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxideComposed of: the heart, blood, and blood vessels
33Organ Systems of the Body- Urinary Eliminates wastes from the bodyMaintains the electrolyte balance and regulates the acid-base balance of the blood.Organ Systems of the Body- UrinaryComposed of: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
34Organ Systems of the Body Female Reproductive Main function is the production of offspringComposed of: mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
35Organ Systems of the Body Male Reproductive Main function is the production of offspringComposed of: epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and vas deferens
36System Cooperation Body systems must work together for humans to function properly:EX #1 – Integumentary system & SkeletalSystem…The skin protects all organs &bones, and also produces vitamin D. Vitamin Dis used for proper absorption of calcium.Calcium is needed for proper bonegrowth/development. Not enough Vitamin D, notenough Calcium absorbed weak/broken bones!
37EX #2: Respiratory system & Circulatory System CooperationEX #2: Respiratory system & Circulatorysystem: Lungs take in oxygen in exchange forcarbon dioxide. Alveoli in the lungs giveoxygen to red blood cells (hemoglobin) to carryto all parts of the body for respiration. If alveoiare affected, not enough oxygen is taken in andrespiration slows decrease in the amount ofenergy produced
38Organ Systems Don’t Work Alone The respiratory system takes in oxygen and removes waste gases.The cardiovascular system is responsible for delivering the oxygen to all parts of our bodies.
39Organ Systems Interrelationships Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the bloodMetabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systemsFigure 1.2
40Create Want Ad CHOOSE A BODY SYSTEM WRITE EITHER A “FOR SALE” OR “WANTED TO BUY” AD FOR THAT SYSTEM. AD MUST INCLUDE PURPOSE/FUNCTION AND PARTS OF THE SYSTEM. WRITE IN AD FORMAT (25 +/- WORDS IN LENGTH)Grading: Content = 15 pts (Purpose, Function & Parts); Creativity = 5 pts
41Survival Need or Necessary Life Function? Metabolism Nutrients Reproduction Oxygen Water Maintaining Boundaries ExcretionNormal Body Temperature Responsiveness Atmospheric Pressure Movement Growth Digestion
42Intro to Anatomy – Lesson 4 TSWBAT identify the eight necessary life functions and five survival needs that are necessary for an organism to sustain life.
43Necessary Life Functions and Survival Needs Organisms must be able to carry out various functions in order to maintain life.If any of these necessary functions are disrupted, the organism may not survive.Organisms have several survival needs that must be present in order to sustain life.
44Necessary Life Functions I Maintaining boundaries – the internal environment remains distinct from the external environment.A. Cellular level – accomplished by plasma membranesB. Organismal level – accomplished by the integumentary system
45Necessary Life Functions I 2. Movement – locomotion, propulsion , and contractilityI.E: All of the activities promoted by the muscular system as well as the movement of substances such as blood, food, and urine.
46Necessary Life Functions I 3. Responsiveness (Irritability) – the body’s ability to sense changes in its environment and then react to themI.E. If you touch a hot burner you will involuntarily pull your hand away from the painful stimulus (fire).I.E. When the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood rises to dangerously high levels, your breathing rate speeds up to blow off the excess carbon dioxide.
47Necessary Life Functions I Digestion – breakdown of ingested food into simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.Metabolism – refers to all chemical reactions that occur within body cells. Regulates the ability to convert nutrients to energy.6. Excretion – removal of wastes from the body7. Reproduction – cellular and organismal levelsCellular – an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells that may be used for body growth or repairOrganismal – sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person8. Growth – increase in size of a body part or of the organism
48Chemical substances used for energy and cell building. 2. Oxygen 5 Survival Needs – The goal of all body systems is to maintain life. Several factors need to be available for this to occur.1. NutrientsChemical substances used for energy and cell building.2. OxygenNeeded for metabolic reactions (human cells can only survive for a few seconds without it).
495 Survival Needs3. WaterProvides the necessary environment for chemical reactions. Accounts for percent of body weight.4. Normal body temperatureNecessary for chemical reactions to occur at life-sustaining rates. For good health, body temperature must be maintained at or around 98 degrees.
505 Survival Needs5. Atmospheric pressure Required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs.
51Check Point:1. Having a fever, high blood pressure, or low blood sugar are all examples of what process being out of balance?2. Reproduction can occur on two levels, they are?3. The ability to keep the “inside” inside and the “outside” outside is an example of which necessary life function?4. What is needed for metabolic reactions to occur?5. What survival need provides energy for the body?
522. Cellular or organismal 3. Maintenance of boundaries 4. Oxygen Answer to checkpoint1. Responsiveness2. Cellular or organismal3. Maintenance of boundaries4. Oxygen5. Nutrients
53Intro to Anatomy – Lesson 5 TSWBAT to define homeostasis and explain negative and positive feedback mechanisms.
54HomeostasisHomeostasis - the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside worldMaintaining homeostasis is absolutely vital to an organism’s survival; failure to maintain homeostasis soon leads to illness or even death.
55STRESS!!! Homeostasis is disrupted by… Stress can be ANY change in the environment!Both the nervous system & endocrinesystems work to maintain homeostasis inthe body.
56Homeostatic Regulation Adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasisTwo general mechanisms are involved in homeostatic regulation:1. Autoregulation – occurs when a cell, tissue, organ or organ system adjusts its activities automatically in response to some environmental change.2. Extrinsic regulation – results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system; they control or adjust the activities of many other systems
57Homeostatic Control Mechanisms If a variable produces a change in the body, control mechanisms are activated to regain homeostasis.Communication within the body is essential for homeostasis and is accomplished chiefly by the nervous and endocrine systems.The three interdependent components of control mechanisms are:ReceptorControl centerEffector
58Receptor – The first component A sensor that monitors and responds to changes (stimuli) in the environmentResponds to stimuli by sending information to the control center (second component)Example: Thermometer of your thermostat of your AC/Heat source in your home
59Control Center – Second Component Determines:A) Set point at which the variable is to be maintainedB) Analyzes the information it receivesC) Determines the appropriate response or course of actionExample: Thermostat
60Effector – Third component Provides the means for the control center’s response to the stimulus (cell or organ). Responds to the commands of the control center.The results of the response then feedback to influence the stimulus either by:1) Depressing it (negative feedback) so that the whole control mechanism is shut off.-Or-2) Enhancing it (positive feedback) so that the reaction continues at an even faster rate.
63Negative FeedbackMost homeostatic control mechanisms are: negative feedback mechanismsA way for counteracting an effectIn negative feedback systems, the output shuts off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity.Negative feedback regulates:Heart rateBlood pressureBreathing rateBlood levels of glucoseBody temperature
64Negative Feedback System Mechanism that receives a stimulus and reverses its effect to maintain equilibriumNegative does NOT mean that it is “bad” for the bodyNFB systems are the most common homeostasis measures usedEX: Stimulus – cold temperature message is sent to the brain (hypothalamus) response – shivering; muscles contract to produce heat
65Shiver Increase Body Temp NEGATIVE FB LOOPBrainSkin CellsMuscles in the SkinDrop in TempShiver Increase Body Temp
67Regulation of blood clotting Positive FeedbackIn positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulusExamples:Regulation of blood clottingChild birthFigure 1.6
68Positive Feedback System Mechanism that receives a stimulus and enhances its effectPositive does NOT mean that it is always “good” for the bodyIn the human body, only 2 PFB systems are helpful(1) Release of oxytocin (hormone) during pregnancy/childbirth(2) Increased blood flow to injury site
70Homeostatic Imbalance Homeostasis is so important that if the body’s normal equilibrium is not corrected, illness occurs.Feedback mechanisms may be overwhelmed or may be not functioning correctly (diabetes, clotting disorders)Disorder – Any derangement or abnormality of function.Disease – More specific term for illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms.This is called homeostatic imbalance.
71Check Point1. What two organ systems are largely responsible for maintaining homeostasis?2. What is the name for the body structure that responds to the control center signal in a feedback system?3. Create and explain an example of negative feedback within the human body. Not one that has already been discussed in class.
721) Nervous and endocrine systems 2) Effector Answers to Check Point1) Nervous and endocrine systems2) Effector
73At the clinicA jogger has stepped in a pothole and sprained her ankle. What systems have suffered damage?A newborn baby is unable to hold down any milk. Examination reveals a developmental disorder in which the esophagus fails to connect to the stomach. What survival needs are most immediately threatened?
74Answers to at the clinic 1. Skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, integumentary, and nervous systems.2. The need for nutrients and water.