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The Human Body Introduction and Orientation

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1 The Human Body Introduction and Orientation

2 Opening Assignment: Organize the following words into the fewest groups
Eyes, Stomach, Kidney, Digestion, Respiration, Umbilicus, Gluteus Maximus, Reproduction, Cells, Urinary Bladder, Mitosis, Excretion, Movement, Gas Exchange, Lungs, Brain, Blood Formation, Support, Absorption, Blood

3 Answer Physiology / Function Anatomy / Structure Eyes Stomach Kidney
Umbilicus Gluteus Maximus Urinary Bladder Cells Lungs Brain Blood Vessels Digestion Respiration Reproduction Mitosis Excretion Movement Gas Exchange Absorption Blood Formation Support

4 Anatomy and Physiology
Structures Shape of the body and its parts Gross Anatomy can be seen without a microscope Microscopic , too small to be seen without a microscope How the body and its parts work Structures determine the function Functions are the processes or jobs

5 Levels of Organization

6 Skeletal Muscular Cardiovascular Nervous Endocrine Integument
11 Systems Skeletal Muscular Cardiovascular Nervous Endocrine Integument Respiratory Digestive Urinary Lymphatic / Immune Reproductive

7 Skeletal System Structure Function
Bones, cartilage, ligaments and joints Function Support. Provides basis for movement. Protection Hematopoiesis = Formation of red blood cells happens within long bones. Mineral storage.

8 Muscular System Structure Function
Skeletal muscles. Although muscle is found in other systems Muscles contract (shorten) and provide movement. Support. Heat production

9 Cardiovascular System
Structure Heart and blood vessels. Function Uses blood as the carrier of nutrients, wastes and gasses Carries White Blood Cells and chemicals that protect the body Heart acts as a pump .

10 Lymphatic / Immune System
Function Structure Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, spleen tonsils, thymus, bone marrow, Recovers fluids for tissue drainage Cleans the blood Houses cells that are involved in immunity

11 Nervous System Function Responds to external and internal signals
Structure Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors Responds to external and internal signals Coordinates activities of other organ systems.

12 Endocrine System Structure
Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenals, Thymus, Pancreas, Pineal, Ovary and Testes. Function Directs long-term changes using hormones. Growth, Reproduction Food Use.

13 Integumentary System Structure
Skin (largest organ) and temperature, pressure and pain receptors. Function Protect, Cushion Waterproofs Excretes salt and urea Regulates temperature.

14 Respiratory System Structure Function
Nasal passage, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs Function Delivery of air to sites where gas exchange takes place

15 Digestive System Function
Processing food, absorption of organic nutrients, minerals vitamins and water Structure oral cavity, esophagus stomach small large intestines rectum liver pancreas

16 Urinary System Structure Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra. Function
Excretes nitrogen-containing waste (forms when protein is broken down) Urea and Uric Acid Maintains water and salt balance Controls pH of the blood

17 Reproductive System Function
Structure Function Production of sex cells and hormones to produce offspring. M=Testes (produce sperm), Scrotum, Penis accessory glands and duct system F=Ovary Produce eggs), Uterine tubes, Uterus, Vagina

18 8 Life Functions Boundaries: Inside is separate from outside…every cell has a membrane. Movement: We move and our food moves through us. Responsiveness: Sense changes and react. Digestion: Breaking down of food to be absorbed by blood. Metabolism: All chemical reactions in the body. Depends on the Digestive and Respiratory systems for nutrients and oxygen but it is regulated by the hormones of the Endocrine system. Excretion: Removing waste Reproduction: Production of offspring Growth: Increase in size.

19 Homeostasis Stable internal conditions Homeostatic Control Mechanisms

20 Negative Feedback Mechanisms
Shuts off original stimulus like home thermostat. Our body has a lot of these: Water, temperature, sugar, fight or flight, muscles for balance. Constant state of adjustment.

21 Positive Feedback Mechanisms
Increases the original stimulus. Blood clotting and birth of baby.


23 Anatomical Position Body erect, feet parallel, arms at sides palms forward. Use the face of the clock to describe location


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