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The Human Body: An Orientation

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1 The Human Body: An Orientation

2 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another …. what things look like Gross or macroscopic – large; seen with eye Microscopic – small; need microscope to see Developmental – changes that occur over time Physiology – the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery …. how a body part works

3 Gross Anatomy Regional – all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg) Systemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by an entire system (i.e. digestive or skeletal system )

4 Microscopic Anatomy Cytology – studies cell structure and its interactions with other cells. One cell only Used to analyze cells to diagnose disease Also known as cell biology Histology – study of the microscopic anatomy of tissues made of a group of similar cells, like muscles or skin. Many cells of the same type

5 Developmental Anatomy
Traces structural changes throughout life (puberty, growing old) Embryology – study of developmental changes of the fetus before birth

6 Specialized Branches of Anatomy
Pathological anatomy – study of structural changes caused by disease causing organisms like bacteria and fungi Radiographic anatomy – study of internal structures visualized by X-ray, MRI, PET scans, CT scans and ultrasound Molecular biology – study of structures at a sub-cellular level like DNA damage caused by cancer or protein structure deformities like sickle-cell anemia

7 Physiology Aspect of Studying Anatomy
Understanding physiology also requires a knowledge of physics, which explains electrical currents, blood pressure, and the way muscle uses bone for movement Also requires knowledge of chemistry where gas laws help to explain gas exchange in our lungs

8 Principle of Complementarity
Function always reflects structure What a structure can do depends on its specific form “The way something looks is related to how the structure works.” In anatomy, we study the structure of a body part, and using our understanding of physics and chemistry, we try and determine how it functions.

9 Levels of Structural Organization
Chemical – atoms combined to form molecules Cellular – cells are made of molecules Tissue – consists of similar types of cells Organ – made up of different types of tissues Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together Organism – made up of the organ systems

10 Levels of Structural Organization
Smooth muscle cell Molecules Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules 2 Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules Smooth muscle tissue Heart 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells Cardiovascular system Blood vessels Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Blood vessel (organ) 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems Connective tissue 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely Figure 1.1

11 Organ Systems of the Body
Integumentary system Forms the external body covering Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D

12 Organ Systems of the Body
Skeletal system Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments Protects and supports body organs Provides the framework for muscles Site of blood cell formation Stores minerals

13 Organ Systems of the Body
Muscular system Composed of muscles and tendons Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression Maintains posture Produces heat

14 Organ Systems of the Body
Nervous system Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves Is the fast-acting control system of the body Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands

15 Organ Systems of the Body
Cardiovascular system Composed of the heart and blood vessels The heart pumps blood The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body

16 Organ Systems of the Body
Lymphatic system Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream Houses white blood cells involved with immunity

17 Organ Systems of the Body
Respiratory system Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide

18 Organ Systems of the Body
Digestive system Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces

19 Endocrine System Organ System Overview Secretes regulatory hormones
Controls growth, like Controls reproduction Controls metabolism human growth hormone like the pancreas creating insulin to control sugar

20 Organ Systems of the Body
Urinary system Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood

21 Organ Systems of the Body
Male reproductive system Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens Main function is the production of offspring Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract

22 Organ Systems of the Body
Female reproductive system Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina Main function is the production of offspring Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn

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