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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 1.9 – 1.20 Seventh Edition Elaine.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 1.9 – 1.20 Seventh Edition Elaine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 1.9 – 1.20 Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook

2 Organ System Overview Slide 1.9 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cardiovascular Transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart Oxygen Carbon dioxide Nutrients Wastes Figure 1.2f

3 Organ System Overview Slide 1.10 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lymphatic Returns fluids to blood vessels Disposes of debris Involved in immunity Figure 1.2g

4 Organ System Overview Slide 1.11 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Respiratory Keeps blood supplied with oxygen Removes carbon dioxide Figure 1.2h

5 Organ System Overview Slide 1.12 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Digestive Breaks down food Allows for nutrient absorption into blood Eliminates indigestible material Figure 1.2i

6 Organ System Overview Slide 1.13 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Urinary Eliminates nitrogenous wastes Maintains acid – base balance Regulation of materials Water Electrolytes Figure 1.2j

7 Organ System Overview Slide 1.14 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Reproductive Production of offspring Figure 1.2k

8 Necessary Life Functions (Physiology) Slide 1.15 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Maintain Boundaries cell membranes & integumentary system accomplish this keep cells or organs from drying out, keep bacteria & chemical substances out and protect tissues from damaging effects of heat & sunlight Movement Locomotion – all of the activities that propel us from one place to another Movement of substances – blood, food, etc

9 Slide 1.15 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Necessary Life Functions (Physiology) Slide 1.15 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Responsiveness (or irritability) Ability to sense changes in environment & react, ie: pulling hand away after touching something hot Carried out primarily by nervous sys. Digestion Break-down and delivery of nutrients Carried out by digestive system

10 Necessary Life Functions Slide 1.16a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Metabolism – all chemical reactions within the body cells Production of energy Making body structures Carried out by digestive, respiratory, circulatory & endocrine systems Excretion Elimination of waste from metabolic reactions Involves digestive, urinary & respiratory sys.

11 Necessary Life Functions Slide 1.16b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Reproduction On a cellular level, new cells are used for growth & repair On an organismal level, leads to production of future generation Growth Increasing of cell size and number Cell-constructing activities must occur faster than cell-destroying ones

12 Survival Needs Slide 1.17a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nutrients Chemicals for energy and cell building Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids (fats), vitamins, and minerals Oxygen Required for chemical reactions

13 Survival Needs Slide 1.17b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Water 60–80% of body weight (most abundant chemical in our bodies) Obtained from food & drink; lost through evaporation in lungs & skin and excretions Provides for metabolic reaction

14 Survival Needs Slide 1.17b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stable body temperature Too low and metabolism becomes too slow to keep cells alive Too high and metabolism is too fast; proteins break down Either extreme can cause death

15 Survival Needs Slide 1.17b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Atmospheric pressure must be appropriate High altitude causes low gas exchange & makes metabolism difficult High pressure (under water) allows gases to dissolve in blood

16 Homeostasis Slide 1.18 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Maintenance of a stable internal environment, regardless of what’s happening outside of the body A dynamic state of equilibrium Homeostasis must be maintained for normal body functioning and to sustain life Homeostatic imbalance – a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease

17 Maintaining Homeostasis Slide 1.19a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The body communicates through neural and hormonal control systems Endocrine & nervous systems 1.Receptor Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli) Sends information to control center

18 Maintaining Homeostasis Slide 1.19b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 2.Control center Determines set point (normal level) Analyzes information Determines appropriate response 3.Effector Provides a means for response to the stimulus Either a positive or negative feedback

19 Feedback Mechanisms Slide 1.20a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Negative feedback Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms Shuts off the original stimulus, or decreases its intensity Works like a household thermostat Stopping a fever, decreasing breathing rate or blood pressure

20 Feedback Mechanisms Slide 1.20b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Positive feedback Increases the original stimulus so the reaction occurs at an even faster rate In the body this only occurs in blood clotting and birth of a baby

21 Homeostatic Imbalance Slide 1.20b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most disease is considered an imbalance in our homeostasis Many aspects of aging are the result of our bodies being less able to maintain homeostasis because organs become less efficient and our bodies respond more slowly to change, etc


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