Next Generation Science/Common Core Standards Addressed! §WHST.9 ‐ 12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS ‐ LS1 ‐ 1) §WHST.9 ‐ 12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS ‐ LS1 ‐ 1) §HSSIC.B.6 Evaluate reports based on data. (HS ‐ LS2 ‐ 6)
Bell Work! §Describe the process of lining out nursery stock. §List and describe the proper nursery field practices. §Describe sample field practice schedules for different types of plants. §Describe the process of properly staking a tree in the field. §Describe the tools and equipment used in production.
Interest Approach Look at the two plants at the front of the room. Describe the differences between them. Can you determine what could be the problem with plant A that plant B doesn’t have? That’s correct - plant A was not watered! What do we typically do with a plant that has not been watered or that looks like this? Would a person who was looking to buy a plant from our nursery buy one that looked like this? What are the proper guidelines for watering a plant?
What is lining out and how is it done? §Lining out: the process of transplanting seedlings of cuttings into the field to grow on to a saleable size. §Transplanting: transferring or moving plants from one location to another. §Liner stock or liner plants: plants that are lined out including stem cuttings, leaf cuttings, leaf-bud cuttings, root cuttings, and seedlings.
Stem Cuttings §Hardwood: both deciduous and evergreen plant material §Semi-hardwood §Softwood: before transplanting out into the field, this material should be well- rooted and shaded for several days in outside frames. §Herbaceous
Seedlings §Seeds generally need to be treated prior to planting using either scarification or stratification. §Scarification: breaking or softening the seed coat to allow the absorption of moisture. §Stratification: chilling the seeds before germination. It usually involves 32-50 degrees F storage.
Steps to Lining Out §The land should be adequately prepared before transplanting. This may include grading, rototilling, soil testing, pre-plant fertilization, etc. §Plants should be chosen and checked for disease or other damage. §Plants should be set out a proper depth. §Soil should be packed around the transplant.
Steps to Lining Out (cont.) §The transplants should be watered immediately. §Transplant should be fertilized as soon as is appropriate.
Watering Guidelines and Information §Plants are composed of 80% water. §Water is needed for cooling and plant growth. §Watering needs are influenced by weather, wind, soil condition, soil type, time of year, and the plant itself. §Irrigation: the application of water using artificial means.
Fertilizing Guidelines and Information §Lime should be applied at least 6 mo. before planting crops if needed. §A soil test should be done to determine what fertilizer is needed. §Annual nitrogen is added to the crops in the following amounts per acre:
Nitrogen application §200-250 lbs. for deciduous trees and shrubs §150-200 lbs. for narrow leaf evergreens §100-150 lbs. for broadleaf everygreens §These amounts should be divided and applied two to three times per year - in the spring, early summer, and early fall.
When fertilizing, consider: §Soil tests §Soil types §Plants being grown §Experience §Common recommendations – The following slide is an example of how fertilizer rates would be calculated for turf grasses.
pH §The ideal level for most plants is 6.5-7.5 but different plants require nutrients in different amounts. §Soil pH: a numeric scale that determines how much of a given nutrient is available to a plant. §If pH is too low, iron and aluminum absorption are too high §If pH is too high, Nitrogen and Phosphorus can become unavailable.
Pruning Guidelines and Information §Done to direct the growth of young plants and to correct any structural weaknesses. §In trees, a straight and well-defined leader should be encouraged. §Leader: the main growing point and the tip end of the trunk. It supports the canopy of the tree.
Pruning Deciduous Trees §Done when the plant is dormant the first winter in the field. Late winter pruning promotes a more natural growth pattern and promotes a flush of vigorous growth in the spring. §A second year winter pruning is usually done with a goal of promoting symmetrical growth. Side branches are pruned back and lower limbs cut.
There are a variety of pruning techniques, which should match the species and use! ( shade, fruit, windbreak etc.)
Root Pruning Guidelines and Information §Done the year before plants are harvested. §Done to reduce stress and improve the main root system. §A U-shaped blade is drawn under plants in a row by a tractor during late summer or fall. §Often done the second year of field growth for rapidly growing shrubs and every 2-3 years for deciduous trees.
Weed Control Guidelines and Information §Seedling and liner production and Container production l Pre-plant: soil pasteurization, soil fumigation, pre-emergent herbicides l Post-plant: herbicides in spring, summer, and fall §Field production l Summer annual weeds: pre-emergent herbicide l Perennial weeds: fall application of herbicide
What is a sample field practice schedule? §A nursery field practice schedule is an accepted routine of field practices followed to bring a crop from lining out to saleable size. §Examples of some different types follow:
Deciduous Shade Trees §1-2 year old liners are planted on 18” spacing and grown for 3 years. §Trees are then dug bare root for market or replanted for growing at wider spacing. § In general, they are planted 3 feet apart for every inch of anticipated truck diameter. § Pruning should be done to establish a symmetrical tree. § Requires 3-8 years in the field.
Deciduous Flowering Trees §Schedule is identical to the shade trees except... §Careful pruning for shape can be done in the late winter §Flower buds should be removed in years prior to harvesting. § Requires 5-7 years in the field.
Deciduous Shrubs §1-2 year old liners planted on 12-24 inch spacing and grown for 3 years. §Most are pruned several times during field culture; usually in the first winter pruning they are headed back to half their height. § Most are root pruned the second or third year. § Requires 3 years in the field.
Narrow-leaf Evergreens §1-2 year old liners are planted on two to three foot spacing. §Upright plants are sheared to maintain dense symmetrical growth. §Usually root pruned every 2-4 years. § Spreaders are pruned back some each year to produce a tight shape - narrower at the top. § Root pruned in the third year. § Both require about 5 years in the field.
Needled Evergreens §2-3 year old liners are planted on 2-3 foot spacing. §First pruning is done when plant is 5-6 feet tall. §1/4 tip growth should be removed causing densely branched and symmetrical growth. § After pruning, fertilizer rates are reduced to prevent long internodes. § Grow best in areas protected from winter winds and with well-drained soil. § Require 5 years in the field.
Broad-leaf Evergreens §1-2 year old liners are planted on 18- 24 inch spacing. §Root pruning is NOT recommended. §Organic matter should be added to the soil to increase moisture retention - mulching is also recommended. § Plants prefer acidic soil and a good windbreak. § Pruning for shape can be done in later winter. § Flower buds should be removed in years prior to harvest. § Requires 4-5 years in field.
Common Pests/Problems of Field Nursery Stock §Insects §Weeds §Diseases §Winter Injury §Animals l Rabbits l Deer l Mice l Humans
Rabbits §Damage: chew bark off of the stems and larger branches. §Control: enclose plant material with fencing or other enclosures, reduce rabbit population, or use repellents. §Repellents: scented chemicals that “scare” pests away from a given area. Usually have a short period of effectiveness.
Deer §Damage: chew buds and tender branches, rub against tree trunks, and can trample small transplants §Control: diversion feeding stations, repellents, fencing, reducing deer population, and electrified visual grazing tape. §Diversion feeding stations: an area away from the field where deer are fed.
Mice §Damage: girdle plants at the soil level and dig holes in container plants §Girdling: to chew the bark at the base of the plant disrupting moisture and energy flow within the plant. §Control: removal of natural shelter, ie weedy areas, poison baits, and natural predators
Humans §Damage: physical or mechanical damage to the plants, neglect, lack of care, poor plant selection §Control: education
Winter Injury §Damage: broken branches, frozen apical growth/buds, lower bark damage, frost cracks and frost heaving. §Control: proper plant selection, anti- desiccants, windbreaks, and proper sheltering or siting of plant can decrease the likelihood of damage. §Anti-desiccants: chemicals sprayed on plant that coat the leaves and conserve moisture.
Why Do We Stake Trees? §To modify the plant form or structure with the goal of a strong and straight leader. http://www.ces.uga.edu/pubcd/B932-w.htm
Guidelines for Staking Trees §When lining out stock, a stake is attached to the prevailing wind side of the tree. This is done so that the tree does not rub against the stake. §It is commonly done with grafted or budded trees. §Stakes should be confined to the lower portion of the tree trunk.
Guidelines (cont.) §The stakes are attached with a flexible twine or twist tie like material. Care should be taken not to scrape or damage the bark. The ties should be checked frequently to make sure they are not causing injury as the plant grows.
Guidelines (cont.) §The stake should be removed as soon as the tree is large enough to support the crown. §Staking varies with the species, cultivar, nurserymen’s preference, and market objective. §There is evidence to support the idea that un-staked trees, produce stems that support their crowns better under the stress of normal wind condition.
Hand tools used in producing nursery stock §Spade: for harvest plant material. It has a sharp end, straight edges, and a footrest. §Shovel: this is generally used for the removal of soil, mulch, or rock. §Hand pruners: used for pruning small branches http://www.gilmour.com/ http://www.ames.com/rightTool/shovels.html SHOVEL HAND PRUNER SPADE
Hand tools... §Small pruning saw: used for pruning medium to large branches. §Caliper: used to measure plants tree trunk diameter. http://www.gilmour.com/ http://www.1gg.com/calipers_elec_gva1.html CALIPER PRUNING SAW
Mechanical tools used in producing nursery stock §Computers: used for inventory, marketing, information gathering, communication, and others. §Planters and packaging machines §Tree diggers/mechanical balling machines §Lifting and loading equipment: includes forklifts, pallet jack, and other transportation equipment.
Summary §What is the process of lining out nursery stock? §List and describe the proper nursery field practices. §What is a sample field practice schedule for a plant? §How do you properly stake a tree in the field? §What are the tools and equipment used in production?