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Establishing and Maintaining Lawns Competencies 37.00-39.00.

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Presentation on theme: "Establishing and Maintaining Lawns Competencies 37.00-39.00."— Presentation transcript:

1 Establishing and Maintaining Lawns Competencies

2 North Carolina Grasses Most commonly grown grasses in NC include Most commonly grown grasses in NC include Kentucky Bluegrass Kentucky Bluegrass Bahiagrass Bahiagrass Centipede Centipede St. Augustine St. Augustine Bermuda Bermuda Zoysia Zoysia Fescue Fescue Ryegrass Ryegrass

3 Grass Identification Grasses are identified by Grasses are identified by Growth habits Growth habits Warm or cool season Warm or cool season Leaf texture (fine, medium, coarse) Leaf texture (fine, medium, coarse) Color (light to dark green) Color (light to dark green)

4 Growth Habits Ways new shoots are produced Ways new shoots are produced Three types: Three types: Rhizome Rhizome Stolon Stolon Bunch-type Bunch-type

5 Cool Season Grasses Grow best in spring and fall and stay green in winter Grow best in spring and fall and stay green in winter Tall fescue Tall fescue Kentucky Bluegrass Kentucky Bluegrass Fine fescue Fine fescue Perennial Ryegrass Perennial Ryegrass Annual Ryegrass Annual Ryegrass

6 Warm Season Grasses Grow best in summer and go dormant in winter Grow best in summer and go dormant in winter Bermudagrass Bermudagrass St. Augustine St. Augustine Bahiagrass Bahiagrass Centipede Centipede

7 Kentucky Bluegrass Growth habit- rhizome Growth habit- rhizome Cool season Cool season Leaf texture-fine Leaf texture-fine Color-Medium to dark green Color-Medium to dark green

8 Bahiagrass Growth Habit- Rhizome Growth Habit- Rhizome Warm season Warm season Leaf texture-coarse Leaf texture-coarse Color-medium to dark green Color-medium to dark green

9 Centipede Growth Habit-stolon Growth Habit-stolon Warm season Warm season Leaf texture-medium Leaf texture-medium Color-Light green Color-Light green

10 St. Augustine Growth Habit-stolon Growth Habit-stolon Warm season Warm season Leaf texture-coarse Leaf texture-coarse Color-medium to dark green Color-medium to dark green

11 Bermuda Growth Habit-both stolon and rhizome Growth Habit-both stolon and rhizome Warm season Warm season Leaf texture-fine Leaf texture-fine Color-light to dark green Color-light to dark green

12 Zoysia Growth Habit-both stolon and rhizome Growth Habit-both stolon and rhizome Warm season Warm season Leaf texture-fine Leaf texture-fine Color-medium to dark green Color-medium to dark green

13 Fescue Growth Habit-bunch type Growth Habit-bunch type Cool season Cool season Leaf texture-medium to coarse Leaf texture-medium to coarse Color-medium green Color-medium green Most common type in Cleveland County Most common type in Cleveland County

14 Ryegrass Can be annual or perennial Can be annual or perennial Growth Habit-Bunch type Growth Habit-Bunch type Cool season Cool season Leaf texture- Perennial-fine, annual-medium Leaf texture- Perennial-fine, annual-medium Color-medium green Color-medium green

15 Climate

16 U.S. Regions or Zones The U.S. has six regions or zones based on climate The U.S. has six regions or zones based on climate Temperature Temperature Available moisture Available moisture Length or growing season Length or growing season

17

18 Zones in NC Three of the U.S. regions are in NC Three of the U.S. regions are in NC Mountains and western piedmont are region 1 Mountains and western piedmont are region 1 Central and eastern piedmont and coastal plains are region 2 Central and eastern piedmont and coastal plains are region 2 Extreme southeastern coast is region 3 Extreme southeastern coast is region 3 Because of the wide range of climatic conditions in NC, many lawn grass varieties are grown in different areas of the state Because of the wide range of climatic conditions in NC, many lawn grass varieties are grown in different areas of the state

19 Region 1 Grasses Kentucky Bluegrass Kentucky Bluegrass Red Fescue Red Fescue Colonial Bentgrass Colonial Bentgrass Tall Fescue Tall Fescue Bermudagrass Bermudagrass Zoysia Zoysia

20 Region 2 Grasses Bermudagrass Bermudagrass Zoysia Zoysia Centipede Centipede St. Augustine St. Augustine Carpetgrass Carpetgrass Tall Fescue Tall Fescue Kentucky Bluegrass Kentucky Bluegrass

21 Region 3 Grasses St. Augustine St. Augustine Bermuda Bermuda Carpetgrass Carpetgrass Zoysia Zoysia Bahiagrass Bahiagrass

22 NC Regions Western-use cool season grasses Western-use cool season grasses Piedmont-use either cool season or warm season depending on location Piedmont-use either cool season or warm season depending on location Coastal Plain-use warm season grasses and cool season Tall Fescue Coastal Plain-use warm season grasses and cool season Tall Fescue

23 Environmental Requirements

24 Temperature/Climate Cool season Cool season Warm season Warm season

25 Type of soil

26 Use tolerance or wear Excellent-Bermudagrass Excellent-Bermudagrass Very Good-Kentucky Bluegrass, Tall Fescue Very Good-Kentucky Bluegrass, Tall Fescue Good-Zoysiagrass, Bahiagrass Good-Zoysiagrass, Bahiagrass Fair-some mixtures Fair-some mixtures Poor-Centipede, St. Augustine Poor-Centipede, St. Augustine

27 Lime and Fertilizer Follow Soil Sample recommendations Follow Soil Sample recommendations

28 Watering As needed, depending on weather and water conservation laws As needed, depending on weather and water conservation laws

29 Mowing Recommended height varies from about 1 for Bermuda, Centipede, and Zoysia to 3 for Tall Fescue Recommended height varies from about 1 for Bermuda, Centipede, and Zoysia to 3 for Tall Fescue General rule of thumb is that less than half of the total leaf surface should be removed General rule of thumb is that less than half of the total leaf surface should be removed

30 Pest Control Weeds Weeds Insects Insects Diseases Diseases Moles Moles

31 Light Requirements Different grasses are adapted to the amount of sun or shade Different grasses are adapted to the amount of sun or shade Shade Shade Partial Shade Partial Shade Full sun Full sun

32 Starting a Lawn

33 Methods to Start a Lawn There are four major methods used to start a lawn There are four major methods used to start a lawn Seeding Seeding Sodding Sodding Plugging Plugging Sprigging and stolonizing Sprigging and stolonizing

34 Seeding Most common and least expensive Most common and least expensive Sown by hand or with a mechanical device such as hand spreaders or powered by machinery such as Sown by hand or with a mechanical device such as hand spreaders or powered by machinery such as Cultipacker seeder Cultipacker seeder Hydroseeder (a sprayer that applies seed, water, fertilizer and mulch at the same time) Hydroseeder (a sprayer that applies seed, water, fertilizer and mulch at the same time)

35 Hydroseeder

36 Sodding Using established turf (grass and roots) that is cut into thin layers and removed from the growing area in strips Using established turf (grass and roots) that is cut into thin layers and removed from the growing area in strips Taken to a new lawn and rolled out and fitted together Taken to a new lawn and rolled out and fitted together More expensive than other methods More expensive than other methods Provides an instant lawn Provides an instant lawn Works on slopes where seeds will wash away Works on slopes where seeds will wash away

37 Sodding

38 Plugging Using small plugs or blocks of sod to plant in holes about one foot apart Using small plugs or blocks of sod to plant in holes about one foot apart Very time-consuming Very time-consuming Used for many warm season grasses that are poor seed producers Used for many warm season grasses that are poor seed producers

39 Sprigging and stolonizing Uses plant runners, cuttings or stolons without soil attached to start new lawns. Uses plant runners, cuttings or stolons without soil attached to start new lawns. Slow if done by hand Slow if done by hand Can be done by broadcasting plant parts and rolling or disking into the soil Can be done by broadcasting plant parts and rolling or disking into the soil Usually used on larger areas such as golf courses Usually used on larger areas such as golf courses

40 Preparing a Seed Bed

41 Steps to Preparing Seed Bed There are four steps to preparing a seed bed: There are four steps to preparing a seed bed: Grading Grading Drainage Drainage Conditioning the soil Conditioning the soil Planting the lawn Planting the lawn

42 Grading Slope away from the house to drain water away from the house and basement Slope away from the house to drain water away from the house and basement Slope should not be over 15% for lawn grasses because of mowing safety Slope should not be over 15% for lawn grasses because of mowing safety

43 Drainage Necessary for proper root growth Necessary for proper root growth Slope affects drainage. Drainage tile below the surface can be used. Slope affects drainage. Drainage tile below the surface can be used.

44 Drainage

45 Conditioning the Soil Six inches of topsoil should be spread over subsoil or if six inches are unavailable, well-rotted or decayed organic matter should be added and mixed into the soil. Six inches of topsoil should be spread over subsoil or if six inches are unavailable, well-rotted or decayed organic matter should be added and mixed into the soil. Roots, stones, dirt clods and other trash such as metal, etc. should be removed Roots, stones, dirt clods and other trash such as metal, etc. should be removed Soil should be tested for pH and nutrient recommendations Soil should be tested for pH and nutrient recommendations

46 Conditioning the Soil Lime and fertilizer should be added to make pH of 6.5 to 7.0 and to meet fertilizer recommendations. Lime and fertilizer should be added to make pH of 6.5 to 7.0 and to meet fertilizer recommendations. All soil additives such as lime, organic matter, fertilizer, pesticides, etc., should be worked into the soil. Soil should be tilled to break the soil into small particles. All soil additives such as lime, organic matter, fertilizer, pesticides, etc., should be worked into the soil. Soil should be tilled to break the soil into small particles.

47 Planting the Lawn Plant at the proper time of year: warm season in spring and cool season in early fall or very early spring Plant at the proper time of year: warm season in spring and cool season in early fall or very early spring Choose the correct high quality seed for the climate and use Choose the correct high quality seed for the climate and use Sow one-half recommended rate of seed in one direction and sow the other half across the lawn at a 90 degree angle to the first half Sow one-half recommended rate of seed in one direction and sow the other half across the lawn at a 90 degree angle to the first half

48 Planting the Lawn Cover seeds by lightly raking so that seeds will have contact with the soil Cover seeds by lightly raking so that seeds will have contact with the soil Mulch with light cover of straw or use commercial mulching material, especially on slopes Mulch with light cover of straw or use commercial mulching material, especially on slopes Water to keep seeds moist and new seedlings moist until they are well established Water to keep seeds moist and new seedlings moist until they are well established


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