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Establishing and Maintaining Lawns

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Presentation on theme: "Establishing and Maintaining Lawns"— Presentation transcript:

1 Establishing and Maintaining Lawns

2 North Carolina Grasses
Most commonly grown grasses in NC include Kentucky Bluegrass Bahiagrass Centipede St. Augustine Bermuda Zoysia Fescue Ryegrass

3 Grass Identification Grasses are identified by Growth habits
Warm or cool season Leaf texture (fine, medium, coarse) Color (light to dark green)

4 Growth Habits Ways new shoots are produced Three types: Rhizome Stolon

5 Cool Season Grasses Grow best in spring and fall and stay green in winter Tall fescue Kentucky Bluegrass Fine fescue Perennial Ryegrass Annual Ryegrass

6 Warm Season Grasses Grow best in summer and go dormant in winter
Bermudagrass St. Augustine Bahiagrass Centipede

7 Kentucky Bluegrass Growth habit-rhizome Cool season Leaf texture-fine
Color-Medium to dark green

8 Bahiagrass Growth Habit-Rhizome Warm season Leaf texture-coarse
Color-medium to dark green

9 Centipede Growth Habit-stolon Warm season Leaf texture-medium
Color-Light green

10 St. Augustine Growth Habit-stolon Warm season Leaf texture-coarse
Color-medium to dark green

11 Bermuda Growth Habit-both stolon and rhizome Warm season
Leaf texture-fine Color-light to dark green

12 Zoysia Growth Habit-both stolon and rhizome Warm season
Leaf texture-fine Color-medium to dark green

13 Fescue Growth Habit-bunch type Cool season
Leaf texture-medium to coarse Color-medium green Most common type in Cleveland County

14 Ryegrass Can be annual or perennial Growth Habit-Bunch type
Cool season Leaf texture-Perennial-fine, annual-medium Color-medium green

15 Climate

16 U.S. Regions or Zones The U.S. has six regions or zones based on climate Temperature Available moisture Length or growing season


18 Zones in NC Three of the U.S. regions are in NC
Mountains and western piedmont are region 1 Central and eastern piedmont and coastal plains are region 2 Extreme southeastern coast is region 3 Because of the wide range of climatic conditions in NC, many lawn grass varieties are grown in different areas of the state

19 Region 1 Grasses Kentucky Bluegrass Red Fescue Colonial Bentgrass
Tall Fescue Bermudagrass Zoysia

20 Region 2 Grasses Bermudagrass Zoysia Centipede St. Augustine
Carpetgrass Tall Fescue Kentucky Bluegrass

21 Region 3 Grasses St. Augustine Bermuda Carpetgrass Zoysia Bahiagrass

22 NC Regions Western-use cool season grasses
Piedmont-use either cool season or warm season depending on location Coastal Plain-use warm season grasses and cool season Tall Fescue

23 Environmental Requirements

24 Temperature/Climate Cool season Warm season

25 Type of soil

26 Use tolerance or wear Excellent-Bermudagrass
Very Good-Kentucky Bluegrass, Tall Fescue Good-Zoysiagrass, Bahiagrass Fair-some mixtures Poor-Centipede, St. Augustine

27 Lime and Fertilizer Follow Soil Sample recommendations

28 Watering As needed, depending on weather and water conservation laws

29 Mowing Recommended height varies from about 1” for Bermuda, Centipede, and Zoysia to 3” for Tall Fescue General rule of thumb is that less than half of the total leaf surface should be removed

30 Pest Control Weeds Insects Diseases Moles

31 Light Requirements Different grasses are adapted to the amount of sun or shade Shade Partial Shade Full sun

32 Starting a Lawn

33 Methods to Start a Lawn There are four major methods used to start a lawn Seeding Sodding Plugging Sprigging and stolonizing

34 Seeding Most common and least expensive
Sown by hand or with a mechanical device such as hand spreaders or powered by machinery such as Cultipacker seeder Hydroseeder (a sprayer that applies seed, water, fertilizer and mulch at the same time)

35 Hydroseeder

36 Sodding Using established turf (grass and roots) that is cut into thin layers and removed from the growing area in strips Taken to a new lawn and rolled out and fitted together More expensive than other methods Provides an instant lawn Works on slopes where seeds will wash away

37 Sodding

38 Plugging Using small plugs or blocks of sod to plant in holes about one foot apart Very time-consuming Used for many warm season grasses that are poor seed producers

39 Sprigging and stolonizing
Uses plant runners, cuttings or stolons without soil attached to start new lawns. Slow if done by hand Can be done by broadcasting plant parts and rolling or disking into the soil Usually used on larger areas such as golf courses

40 Preparing a Seed Bed

41 Steps to Preparing Seed Bed
There are four steps to preparing a seed bed: Grading Drainage Conditioning the soil Planting the lawn

42 Grading Slope away from the house to drain water away from the house and basement Slope should not be over 15% for lawn grasses because of mowing safety

43 Drainage Necessary for proper root growth
Slope affects drainage. Drainage tile below the surface can be used.

44 Drainage

45 Conditioning the Soil Six inches of topsoil should be spread over subsoil or if six inches are unavailable, well-rotted or decayed organic matter should be added and mixed into the soil. Roots, stones, dirt clods and other trash such as metal, etc. should be removed Soil should be tested for pH and nutrient recommendations

46 Conditioning the Soil Lime and fertilizer should be added to make pH of 6.5 to 7.0 and to meet fertilizer recommendations. All soil additives such as lime, organic matter, fertilizer, pesticides, etc., should be worked into the soil. Soil should be tilled to break the soil into small particles.

47 Planting the Lawn Plant at the proper time of year: warm season in spring and cool season in early fall or very early spring Choose the correct high quality seed for the climate and use Sow one-half recommended rate of seed in one direction and sow the other half across the lawn at a 90 degree angle to the first half

48 Planting the Lawn Cover seeds by lightly raking so that seeds will have contact with the soil Mulch with light cover of straw or use commercial mulching material, especially on slopes Water to keep seeds moist and new seedlings moist until they are well established

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