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Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Chapter 23

2 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Unit 10 Objectives: Identify types of flower/foliage plants people buy in different times of the year Time from planting to income production Understand watering precautions Transplanting indoor flowers/foliage to the outdoors The greenhouse environment

3 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Flower Business People buy flowers at different times of the year for different reasons


5 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Floriculture contributes $3 b to the economy each yr Herbaceous Perennials Classified as herbaceous if the top dies back to the ground each winter, grows new stems each yr Classified as woody if the top persists Advantages Don’t have to replant each yr The flower bed can change colors as one variety flowers, then another

6 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Not as necessary to deadhead Disadvantages Only bloom 2-3 wks Require pruning May require transplanting every 2-3 yrs Growing Perennials Keys Proper soil preparation Planning Occasional maintenance

7 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Selection Site influences the species grown What might be an example? Most prefer 6-8 hrs sun/d May have to consider wind protection for taller varieties Planning Color combinations Height coordination Bloom sequencing Plan on graph paper carefully

8 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Properly planned perennial gardens will have flowers that bloom in each season Spring, early summer, midsummer, late summer/fall Plant in drifts Taller varieties to the back to act as a border Spacing 6-12” for dwarf plants 12-18” for medium sizes 18-36” for tall plants Soil Preparation Good drainage necessary Don’t want it excessively moist during winter dormancy

9 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Incorporate organic matter or peat moss to improve drainage Prepare in the fall Especially good in raised beds Planting Usually planted in the spring (Apr – May) Mail order nurseries will often ship bare-rooted Plant ASAP Potted perennials Plant throughout the growing season If exposed to the outside temps through the winter – can be planted in early spring Greenhouse grown – after last frost

10 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Cover exposed crowns after planting to protect Weed-free bed Grow best if planted before Oct 1 to ensure good rooting Watering Most need supplemental water until well established 1”/wk Once established – only water during dry periods Water preferred over the soil rather than overhead to prevent disease and shallow rooting Fertilization Incorporate a or 2-3 lbs/100 sq ft before planting

11 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Established plants Bone meal, superphosphate (0-19-0) in spring will be most beneficial Maintenance May have to stake taller varieties Pinching back will produce bushier growth Mulch helps control weeds Not too much mulch around the crown – will hold too much moisture, results in disease Winter protection Most injured by heaving, not cold temps Mulch will help protect

12 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Make sure the mulch isn’t too tight or thick Dividing & transplanting Maintains plant vigor & maximum flower production Usually every 3-4 yrs Some should never be divided Timing is critical Midsummer to fall bloom – divide in early spring before too much growth Spring to early summer – divide in the fall, after foliage dies Procedure Dig hole large enough to catch all the roots Carefully avoid root damage

13 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Divide outside off first – more vigorous new growth Clean off all other soil May want to cut top back to 6” Break apart by hand, or with sharp knife Replant ASAP Diseases & Insects Usually very healthy plants Remove any dead plant material Propagation From tips Root cuttings

14 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Flowering Annuals Will only persist if they reseed themselves Must be planted each yr Advantages Versatile Sturdy Cheap Easy to grow Produce instant color

15 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Bloom for most of the growing season Allow for experimentation Color Height Texture Form Disadvantages Replant each yr Constant deadheading to maintain flowering May begin to look worn out by late summer

16 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Uses Fill spaces until permanent plantings are prepared Extending perennial beds Fill holes Cover spring blooming bulbs Fill planters, window boxes, hanging baskets Plant along fences, walkways Create seasonal color

17 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Site Selection & Preparation Different species have different environmental preferences Fall soil preparation is best Ensure good drainage Incorporate organic matter Use proper fertilizer Seed Selection Buy good, viable seed Old seed is less vigorous, reduced germination

18 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Buy hybrid varieties More uniform size Increased plant vigor Better quality flowers Starting Plants Indoors Use clean containers Fill to 2/3 capacity Plant at proper depth Bottom heat is helpful 60-75º ideal Use mild fertilizer after plants begin growth Low nutrient content is best at planting

19 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Planting Times Wait till after last frost <60º soil temp will reduce germination & growth Sowing Seed Outdoors Sow in vermiculite filled furrows Germination is often reduced Soil crusting reduces water presence 1/2” depth Easy to overwater

20 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Setting out Transplants Can have flowers sooner than growing from seeds Buy only healthy plants Harden off properly Plant in a hole that will hold all the roots comfortably Setting Plants Remove paper from a fiber pot and plant Remove upper part to conserve moisture to around the plant Will create a wick effect

21 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Thinning Thin to recommended spacing for best results Especially in outdoor-grown plants 8-12” general recommended spacing Ensures proper amounts of: Light Water Nutrients Space Watering Water enough to keep soil moist (don’t get soggy) Drip systems are ideal

22 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Don’t want to wet flowers or foliage More susceptible to disease Mulching Keeps soil surface from crusting Prevents weeds Cultivation Keep soil surface from crusting Pull weeds by hand Feeder roots from flower to flower may be injured if you mechanically cultivate

23 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Stirs and uncovers weed seeds Deadheading Remove spent flowers and seeds pods Ageratum, calendula, cosmos, marigolds, pansy, zinnia, petunias, etc Staking Support for bad weather for tall plants 6” shorter than the mature plant Begin when they are 1/3 of mature height

24 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Fertilizing Ensure proper soil nutrients Soil testing Prior knowledge Add to damp soil Apply w/ watering Bulbs Contain embryonic plant & stored food

25 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Site Selection & Soil Well-drained loam Use organic matter Planting Bulb planter, hand trowel, or nursery spade Planted in fall/spring (depending on variety) Follow depth recommendations for each variety Fertilizing Small amount of fertilizer covered w/ soil on bottom of bed before planting (5-10-5) Small amount in the spring

26 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Care & Flowering Dig up after foliage turns yellow & dies Some must be dug each yr to maintain the best flowers Tulips, hyacinths Others only need to be dug every 3-5 yrs Daffodil, crocus, lilly Dust w/ a pesticide to prevent infestation Store in peat moss or sawdust Bulb Pest & Diseases Keep bed weed and trash free

27 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Use chemicals only if necessary Forcing Bulbs Artificially breaking dormancy Pot & store at 40-50º for wks Bring into a cool room w/ partial light Will then bloom after taken from cool storage w/in 5 wks Flowering House Plants Several keys to growing good flowering house plants

28 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Light Know proper light requirements 5 categories Full sun: >5 hrs direct sun/d Some direct sun: brightly lit, <5 hrs direct sun/d Bright indirect light: considerable light, no direct sun Partial shade: indirect light, various intensities/durations Shade: poorly lit, away from windows Temperature Constant temps are best 60-68º ideal

29 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Water/Humidity Water requirements are not as high as we think Many die from overwatering Water only when they are a little dry Must have good drainage Can bottom or top water General Care 5-5-5 fertilizer will usually provide ample nutrients Slow release will eliminate risk for burning Don’t fertilize a dormant or overly dry plant Collect dead leaves Loosen crusted soil

30 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Repotting Repot no more than 2” greater than previous pot Only after flowers have faded Remove damaged/unhealthy roots Propagation Depends on type of plant Generally leaf/stem cuttings

31 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
The Greenhouse Environment 3 purposes Controlled environment for plants grown on large scale Grow plants when not possible outdoors Extend growing season for plants that would go dormant Should receive maximum amount of sunlight Should control: Temp Moisture Ventilation Climate

32 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
Humidity is important to help maintain shape & nutrient transport Ventilation Exchanging air is crucial for optimal growth Ensures proper temp & humidity Climate affects heating/cooling systems Features Various base materials Covers Glass, soft plastic, acrylic panels, poly panels

33 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage
No homework on this unit! Exam 3 next time Open notes/book Units 6-10 Must make arrangements for notes before you leave!

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