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Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Chapter 23. Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Unit 10 Objectives: Unit 10 Objectives: Identify types of flower/foliage plants people.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Chapter 23. Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Unit 10 Objectives: Unit 10 Objectives: Identify types of flower/foliage plants people."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Chapter 23

2 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Unit 10 Objectives: Unit 10 Objectives: Identify types of flower/foliage plants people buy in different times of the year Identify types of flower/foliage plants people buy in different times of the year Time from planting to income production Time from planting to income production Understand watering precautions Understand watering precautions Transplanting indoor flowers/foliage to the outdoors Transplanting indoor flowers/foliage to the outdoors The greenhouse environment The greenhouse environment

3 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Flower Business Flower Business People buy flowers at different times of the year for different reasons People buy flowers at different times of the year for different reasons

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5 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Floriculture contributes $3 b to the economy each yr Floriculture contributes $3 b to the economy each yr Herbaceous Perennials Herbaceous Perennials Classified as herbaceous if the top dies back to the ground each winter, grows new stems each yr Classified as herbaceous if the top dies back to the ground each winter, grows new stems each yr Classified as woody if the top persists Classified as woody if the top persists Advantages Advantages Dont have to replant each yr Dont have to replant each yr The flower bed can change colors as one variety flowers, then another The flower bed can change colors as one variety flowers, then another

6 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Not as necessary to deadhead Not as necessary to deadhead Disadvantages Disadvantages Only bloom 2-3 wks Only bloom 2-3 wks Require pruning Require pruning May require transplanting every 2-3 yrs May require transplanting every 2-3 yrs Growing Perennials Growing Perennials Keys Keys Proper soil preparation Proper soil preparation Planning Planning Occasional maintenance Occasional maintenance

7 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Selection Selection Site influences the species grown Site influences the species grown What might be an example? What might be an example? Most prefer 6-8 hrs sun/d Most prefer 6-8 hrs sun/d May have to consider wind protection for taller varieties May have to consider wind protection for taller varieties Planning Planning Color combinations Color combinations Height coordination Height coordination Bloom sequencing Bloom sequencing Plan on graph paper carefully Plan on graph paper carefully

8 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Properly planned perennial gardens will have flowers that bloom in each season Properly planned perennial gardens will have flowers that bloom in each season Spring, early summer, midsummer, late summer/fall Spring, early summer, midsummer, late summer/fall Plant in drifts Plant in drifts Taller varieties to the back to act as a border Taller varieties to the back to act as a border Spacing Spacing 6-12 for dwarf plants 6-12 for dwarf plants for medium sizes for medium sizes for tall plants for tall plants Soil Preparation Soil Preparation Good drainage necessary Good drainage necessary Dont want it excessively moist during winter dormancy Dont want it excessively moist during winter dormancy

9 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Incorporate organic matter or peat moss to improve drainage Incorporate organic matter or peat moss to improve drainage Prepare in the fall Prepare in the fall Especially good in raised beds Especially good in raised beds Planting Planting Usually planted in the spring (Apr – May) Usually planted in the spring (Apr – May) Mail order nurseries will often ship bare-rooted Mail order nurseries will often ship bare-rooted Plant ASAP Plant ASAP Potted perennials Potted perennials Plant throughout the growing season Plant throughout the growing season If exposed to the outside temps through the winter – can be planted in early spring If exposed to the outside temps through the winter – can be planted in early spring Greenhouse grown – after last frost Greenhouse grown – after last frost

10 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Cover exposed crowns after planting to protect Cover exposed crowns after planting to protect Weed-free bed Weed-free bed Grow best if planted before Oct 1 to ensure good rooting Grow best if planted before Oct 1 to ensure good rooting Watering Watering Most need supplemental water until well established Most need supplemental water until well established 1/wk 1/wk Once established – only water during dry periods Once established – only water during dry periods Water preferred over the soil rather than overhead to prevent disease and shallow rooting Water preferred over the soil rather than overhead to prevent disease and shallow rooting Fertilization Fertilization Incorporate a or 2-3 lbs/100 sq ft before planting Incorporate a or 2-3 lbs/100 sq ft before planting

11 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Established plants Established plants Bone meal, superphosphate (0-19-0) in spring will be most beneficial Bone meal, superphosphate (0-19-0) in spring will be most beneficial Maintenance Maintenance May have to stake taller varieties May have to stake taller varieties Pinching back will produce bushier growth Pinching back will produce bushier growth Mulch helps control weeds Mulch helps control weeds Not too much mulch around the crown – will hold too much moisture, results in disease Not too much mulch around the crown – will hold too much moisture, results in disease Winter protection Winter protection Most injured by heaving, not cold temps Most injured by heaving, not cold temps Mulch will help protect Mulch will help protect

12 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Make sure the mulch isnt too tight or thick Make sure the mulch isnt too tight or thick Dividing & transplanting Dividing & transplanting Maintains plant vigor & maximum flower production Maintains plant vigor & maximum flower production Usually every 3-4 yrs Usually every 3-4 yrs Some should never be divided Some should never be divided Timing is critical Timing is critical Midsummer to fall bloom – divide in early spring before too much growth Midsummer to fall bloom – divide in early spring before too much growth Spring to early summer – divide in the fall, after foliage dies Spring to early summer – divide in the fall, after foliage dies Procedure Procedure Dig hole large enough to catch all the roots Dig hole large enough to catch all the roots Carefully avoid root damage Carefully avoid root damage

13 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Divide outside off first – more vigorous new growth Divide outside off first – more vigorous new growth Clean off all other soil Clean off all other soil May want to cut top back to 6 May want to cut top back to 6 Break apart by hand, or with sharp knife Break apart by hand, or with sharp knife Replant ASAP Replant ASAP Diseases & Insects Diseases & Insects Usually very healthy plants Usually very healthy plants Remove any dead plant material Remove any dead plant material Propagation Propagation From tips From tips Root cuttings Root cuttings

14 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Flowering Annuals Flowering Annuals Will only persist if they reseed themselves Will only persist if they reseed themselves Must be planted each yr Must be planted each yr Advantages Advantages Versatile Versatile Sturdy Sturdy Cheap Cheap Easy to grow Easy to grow Produce instant color Produce instant color

15 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Bloom for most of the growing season Bloom for most of the growing season Allow for experimentation Allow for experimentation Color Color Height Height Texture Texture Form Form Disadvantages Disadvantages Replant each yr Replant each yr Constant deadheading to maintain flowering Constant deadheading to maintain flowering May begin to look worn out by late summer May begin to look worn out by late summer

16 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Uses Uses Fill spaces until permanent plantings are prepared Fill spaces until permanent plantings are prepared Extending perennial beds Extending perennial beds Fill holes Fill holes Cover spring blooming bulbs Cover spring blooming bulbs Fill planters, window boxes, hanging baskets Fill planters, window boxes, hanging baskets Plant along fences, walkways Plant along fences, walkways Create seasonal color Create seasonal color

17 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Site Selection & Preparation Site Selection & Preparation Different species have different environmental preferences Different species have different environmental preferences Fall soil preparation is best Fall soil preparation is best Ensure good drainage Ensure good drainage Incorporate organic matter Incorporate organic matter Use proper fertilizer Use proper fertilizer Seed Selection Seed Selection Buy good, viable seed Buy good, viable seed Old seed is less vigorous, reduced germination Old seed is less vigorous, reduced germination

18 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Buy hybrid varieties Buy hybrid varieties More uniform size More uniform size Increased plant vigor Increased plant vigor Better quality flowers Better quality flowers Starting Plants Indoors Starting Plants Indoors Use clean containers Use clean containers Fill to 2/3 capacity Fill to 2/3 capacity Plant at proper depth Plant at proper depth Bottom heat is helpful Bottom heat is helpful 60-75º ideal 60-75º ideal Use mild fertilizer after plants begin growth Use mild fertilizer after plants begin growth Low nutrient content is best at planting Low nutrient content is best at planting

19 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Planting Times Planting Times Wait till after last frost Wait till after last frost <60º soil temp will reduce germination & growth <60º soil temp will reduce germination & growth Sowing Seed Outdoors Sowing Seed Outdoors Sow in vermiculite filled furrows Sow in vermiculite filled furrows Germination is often reduced Germination is often reduced Soil crusting reduces water presence Soil crusting reduces water presence 1/2 depth 1/2 depth Easy to overwater Easy to overwater

20 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Setting out Transplants Setting out Transplants Can have flowers sooner than growing from seeds Can have flowers sooner than growing from seeds Buy only healthy plants Buy only healthy plants Harden off properly Harden off properly Plant in a hole that will hold all the roots comfortably Plant in a hole that will hold all the roots comfortably Setting Plants Setting Plants Remove paper from a fiber pot and plant Remove paper from a fiber pot and plant Remove upper part to conserve moisture to around the plant Remove upper part to conserve moisture to around the plant Will create a wick effect Will create a wick effect

21 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Thinning Thinning Thin to recommended spacing for best results Thin to recommended spacing for best results Especially in outdoor-grown plants Especially in outdoor-grown plants 8-12 general recommended spacing 8-12 general recommended spacing Ensures proper amounts of: Ensures proper amounts of: Light Light Water Water Nutrients Nutrients Space Space Watering Watering Water enough to keep soil moist (dont get soggy) Water enough to keep soil moist (dont get soggy) Drip systems are ideal Drip systems are ideal

22 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Dont want to wet flowers or foliage Dont want to wet flowers or foliage More susceptible to disease More susceptible to disease Mulching Mulching Keeps soil surface from crusting Keeps soil surface from crusting Prevents weeds Prevents weeds Cultivation Cultivation Keep soil surface from crusting Keep soil surface from crusting Pull weeds by hand Pull weeds by hand Feeder roots from flower to flower may be injured if you mechanically cultivate Feeder roots from flower to flower may be injured if you mechanically cultivate

23 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Stirs and uncovers weed seeds Stirs and uncovers weed seeds Deadheading Deadheading Remove spent flowers and seeds pods Remove spent flowers and seeds pods Ageratum, calendula, cosmos, marigolds, pansy, zinnia, petunias, etc Ageratum, calendula, cosmos, marigolds, pansy, zinnia, petunias, etc Staking Staking Support for bad weather for tall plants Support for bad weather for tall plants 6 shorter than the mature plant 6 shorter than the mature plant Begin when they are 1/3 of mature height Begin when they are 1/3 of mature height

24 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Fertilizing Fertilizing Ensure proper soil nutrients Ensure proper soil nutrients Soil testing Soil testing Prior knowledge Prior knowledge Add to damp soil Add to damp soil Apply w/ watering Apply w/ watering Bulbs Bulbs Contain embryonic plant & stored food Contain embryonic plant & stored food

25 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Site Selection & Soil Site Selection & Soil Well-drained loam Well-drained loam Use organic matter Use organic matter Planting Planting Bulb planter, hand trowel, or nursery spade Bulb planter, hand trowel, or nursery spade Planted in fall/spring (depending on variety) Planted in fall/spring (depending on variety) Follow depth recommendations for each variety Follow depth recommendations for each variety Fertilizing Fertilizing Small amount of fertilizer covered w/ soil on bottom of bed before planting (5-10-5) Small amount of fertilizer covered w/ soil on bottom of bed before planting (5-10-5) Small amount in the spring Small amount in the spring

26 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Care & Flowering Care & Flowering Dig up after foliage turns yellow & dies Dig up after foliage turns yellow & dies Some must be dug each yr to maintain the best flowers Some must be dug each yr to maintain the best flowers Tulips, hyacinths Tulips, hyacinths Others only need to be dug every 3-5 yrs Others only need to be dug every 3-5 yrs Daffodil, crocus, lilly Daffodil, crocus, lilly Dust w/ a pesticide to prevent infestation Dust w/ a pesticide to prevent infestation Store in peat moss or sawdust Store in peat moss or sawdust Bulb Pest & Diseases Bulb Pest & Diseases Keep bed weed and trash free Keep bed weed and trash free

27 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Use chemicals only if necessary Use chemicals only if necessary Forcing Bulbs Forcing Bulbs Artificially breaking dormancy Artificially breaking dormancy Pot & store at 40-50º for wks Pot & store at 40-50º for wks Bring into a cool room w/ partial light Bring into a cool room w/ partial light Will then bloom after taken from cool storage w/in 5 wks Will then bloom after taken from cool storage w/in 5 wks Flowering House Plants Flowering House Plants Several keys to growing good flowering house plants Several keys to growing good flowering house plants

28 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Light Light Know proper light requirements Know proper light requirements 5 categories 5 categories Full sun: >5 hrs direct sun/d Full sun: >5 hrs direct sun/d Some direct sun: brightly lit, <5 hrs direct sun/d Some direct sun: brightly lit, <5 hrs direct sun/d Bright indirect light: considerable light, no direct sun Bright indirect light: considerable light, no direct sun Partial shade: indirect light, various intensities/durations Partial shade: indirect light, various intensities/durations Shade: poorly lit, away from windows Shade: poorly lit, away from windows Temperature Temperature Constant temps are best Constant temps are best 60-68º ideal 60-68º ideal

29 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Water/Humidity Water/Humidity Water requirements are not as high as we think Water requirements are not as high as we think Many die from overwatering Many die from overwatering Water only when they are a little dry Water only when they are a little dry Must have good drainage Must have good drainage Can bottom or top water Can bottom or top water General Care General Care fertilizer will usually provide ample nutrients fertilizer will usually provide ample nutrients Slow release will eliminate risk for burning Slow release will eliminate risk for burning Dont fertilize a dormant or overly dry plant Dont fertilize a dormant or overly dry plant Collect dead leaves Collect dead leaves Loosen crusted soil Loosen crusted soil

30 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Repotting Repotting Repot no more than 2 greater than previous pot Repot no more than 2 greater than previous pot Only after flowers have faded Only after flowers have faded Remove damaged/unhealthy roots Remove damaged/unhealthy roots Propagation Propagation Depends on type of plant Depends on type of plant Generally leaf/stem cuttings Generally leaf/stem cuttings

31 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage The Greenhouse Environment The Greenhouse Environment 3 purposes 3 purposes Controlled environment for plants grown on large scale Controlled environment for plants grown on large scale Grow plants when not possible outdoors Grow plants when not possible outdoors Extend growing season for plants that would go dormant Extend growing season for plants that would go dormant Should receive maximum amount of sunlight Should receive maximum amount of sunlight Should control: Should control: Temp Temp Moisture Moisture Ventilation Ventilation Climate Climate

32 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage Humidity is important to help maintain shape & nutrient transport Humidity is important to help maintain shape & nutrient transport Ventilation Ventilation Exchanging air is crucial for optimal growth Exchanging air is crucial for optimal growth Ensures proper temp & humidity Ensures proper temp & humidity Climate affects heating/cooling systems Climate affects heating/cooling systems Features Features Various base materials Various base materials Covers Covers Glass, soft plastic, acrylic panels, poly panels Glass, soft plastic, acrylic panels, poly panels

33 Unit 10: Flowers & Foliage No homework on this unit! No homework on this unit! Exam 3 next time Exam 3 next time Open notes/book Open notes/book Units 6-10 Units 6-10 Must make arrangements for notes before you leave! Must make arrangements for notes before you leave!


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