Presentation on theme: "Pomes, Nuts and Berries, Oh My! September 17, 2013 The Morton Arboretum Community Trees Program Andrea Dierich Presentation was made possible by the Illinois."— Presentation transcript:
Pomes, Nuts and Berries, Oh My! September 17, 2013 The Morton Arboretum Community Trees Program Andrea Dierich Presentation was made possible by the Illinois Extension Service
Step 1: Determining if Fruit Trees Are Right for You Maintenance Level: -Low (water, weed & mulch) -Medium (some pruning and pest management) -High (pruning and dedicated pest management)
Species that Fit Your Style Low: figs, mulberry, most nut trees, paw-paw, persimmon, serviceberry Medium: tart cherries, pears, plums High: apples peaches, some pears
General Information -Winter is a limiting factor in growing some fruit -Bare-root or container recommended for planting -Best planted when small -Dedicated fall and spring care
Other Considerations & Determining Factors Space Sunlight Soil Moisture & Drainage Pollination Pests & Diseases
Soil Type Slightly Acidic - Neutral Paw-Paws Serviceberries Persimmon Pears Cherries Hazelnut Neutral – Alkaline Apples Pecans Walnut Chinese Chestnuts
Planting Time: spring, usually around April Spacing: varies depending on the species and effect desired Handling bare-root stock: keep roots damp plant as soon as possible root prune with care
Planting Proper planting: dig large enough hole spread roots, cut off bad ones plant at proper depth* keep soil moist do not fertilize for the first year!
Trees on seedling rootstock: plant 2 inches deeper than they were planted in the nursery (for stability) Trees on dwarfing rootstock: graft or bud union should be about 3” above the soil level
Tree Size Standard (grafted on seedling rootstock) -full size, large trees *Nut trees generally are standard size.* Semi-Dwarf and Dwarf -variable in size -ask about the mature height
Purchasing Tree Stock Homework into nurseries and suitable tree species will be required. -Buy container or bare-root -Ensure immediate planting or care will be available when stock arrives -If container tree remove top layer of soil until first root is visible -May species will require at least a second tree to be purchased…
Fruitfulness/Pollination Self-pollination vs. Cross Pollination
Fruitfulness/Pollination Self-fruitful: Peach Tart Cherries Hazelnuts Self- unfruitful: Most apples Pears Paw-Paws Japanese plum Chinese chestnuts
Fruitfulness/Pollination Partially Self-fruitful: Apricots European plums Walnut Pecan
Young Trees Help a tree to establish and strengthen before fruit production! Mulch soil Adequate water Limb train Prune Fertilize in the late summer (2 nd yr)
Care of Young (Non-bearing)Trees Prevent premature bearing: -remove all fruit the first 2 seasons -after that allow light to moderate crops -do not allow a heavy fruit load on central leader
Branch spreading in a young tree using toothpicks. Branch spreading in a older tree using wood stakes. Well trained trees!
Care of Young (Non-bearing)Trees Bringing young trees into bearing -reduce N fertilization -tie or spread branches
Pest Control Organic deterrent (1 part Tabasco – 5 parts H2O) Bordeaux mixture Stem wrapping + hardwire
Bearing Trees: Spring Care Fertilize properly: -early spring at bud-swell -start 1’ out from trunk and go to drip-line Spring pruning Aid pollination if needed (paw-paw) Protect buds and immature fruit from fungal and tissue diseases.
Bearing Trees: Fall Care Sanitation!!!!!! Remove all debris; including leaf litter, and fruit. Water, water, water Mulch Identify branches to prune in the late winter Wrap bark of young trees
Bearing Trees ‘Winter’ injury Fluctuating day/night temperatures frost cracking Spring frost cover tree to the ground
Bearing Trees: Fruit Thinning Why do it? Excess fruit will -reduce fruit size -retard development of next year’s buds -increase risk of branch breakage
Bearing Trees: Fruit Thinning When to do it? -Late May, early June How? -nature (June drop) -by hand -a little shake Consider the spacing between fruit as well!
Why Prune? 1. Improve quality and size of fruit 2. Develop a strong tree 3. Facilitate culture and harvest 4. Manage size and shape of the tree
Pruning Fruit Trees: Training Systems Open Center commonly used for stone fruit trees Central Leader commonly used for apples, pears, cherries and some plums
Pruning Fruit Trees: Open Center -single trunk, 18-30 inches high -2, 3 or 4 scaffold branches, all close together near top of tree -crotch angles 40-90 degrees