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 Direction of the muscle fibers Named in reference to an imaginary line Rectus – straight (parallel to line) Oblique – at a slant to the line  Relative.

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Presentation on theme: " Direction of the muscle fibers Named in reference to an imaginary line Rectus – straight (parallel to line) Oblique – at a slant to the line  Relative."— Presentation transcript:

1  Direction of the muscle fibers Named in reference to an imaginary line Rectus – straight (parallel to line) Oblique – at a slant to the line  Relative Size of the muscle Maximus – largest Minimus – smallest Longus - longest

2  Location of the muscle Named for the bone with which they are associated  Number of origins Bi – two origins Tri – three Quad - four

3  Location of the muscle’s origin and insertion Example is sternocleidomastoid = sternum, clavicle, and mastoid (process of the temporal bone)  Shape of the muscle Deltoid means triangular  Action of the Muscle Flexor, extensor, and adductor

4  Circular – concentric rings, used for external body organs that need to close by contracting. Also known as a sphincter  Convergent – Converge to a single insertion tendon. Makes a fanlike or triangular muscle

5  Parallel – length of fascicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscle  Fusiform – Type of parallel that results in a spindle-shaped muscle with an expanded belly  Pennate – feathered pattern. Short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon. Unipennate attaches to one tendon Bipennate attaches to two tendons While multipennate attaches to many tendons

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8  Frontalis – Covers frontal bone. Allows you to raise your eyebrows and wrinkle your forehead  Occipitalis – Covers occipital bone and pulls the scalp posteriorly  Orbicularis Oculi – circular muscle around the eye which allows your eyes to close  Orbicularis Oris – Circular muscle of the lips, also known as the kissing muscle  Zygomaticus – Extends from the corner of the mouth to the cheek bone. Also known as the smiling muscle

9  Buccinator – Runs horizontally across the cheek and inserts into the orbicularis oris. It is also classified as a facial muscle. Responsible for flattening cheeks  Masseter – covers the angle of the jaw bone. Responsible for closing the jaw by elevating the mandible  Temporalis – fanshaped muscle that covers the temporal bone. It is the synergist to the masseter

10  Platysma – single sheetlike muscle that covers the anterolateral neck. Produces a downward sag of the mouth  Sternocleidomastoid – a pair of two headed muscles found on each side of the neck. If both contract, they flex the neck and lower your head. If one contracts, it rotates your head  (Cranial aponeurosis - Sheetlike tendon on the top of the skull)

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12  Pectoralis Major – large fan-shaped muscle covering the upper part of the chest. It is used to adduct and flex the arm  Intercostal Muscles – Deep muscles found between the ribs. They help with breathing by raising the ribcage.

13  Rectus abdominis – most superficial abdominal muscle. They flex the vertebral column, and compress the abdominal contents during defecation and child birth  External oblique – Make up lateral walls. They also flex the vertebral column, rotate the trunk, and bend it laterally  Internal oblique – Deep to external, run at a right angle to them, and perform the same functions  Transversus abdominis – Deepest abdominal muscle and it compress the abdominal contents

14  Trapezuis – most superficial of these muscles and resembles a kite. They extend the head as well as elevate, depress, adduct, and stabilize the scapula  Latissimus Dorsi – Covers the lower back and is responsible for extending and adducting the humerus  Erector Spinae – It is composed of the longissimus, iliocostalis, and spinalis. These are the main extensors of the back as well as help control the action of bending over at the waist  Deltoid – triangular shaped muscles that form the shape of the shoulder and are the prime movers of arm abduction

15  Biceps brachii – “The forearm muscle” that is the prime mover for flexion and is used to supinate the forearm  Brachialis – muscle deep to the bicep that is used for elbow flexion  Brachioradialis – a weak arm muscle  Triceps brachii – the most powerful prime mover of elbow extension and is the antagonist of the bicep

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19  Gluteus Maximus – “Butt muscle” It is a powerful hip extensor, especially when power is needed (jumping and stair climbing)  Gluteus Medius – Deep to the maximus muscle and is a hip abductor and stabilizes the hip during walking  Iliopsoas – a fused muscle (itiacus and psoas major) that is the prime mover of hip flexion and stabilizes upper body from falling backward while standing  Adductor muscles – a group of muscles that adduct the hips together

20  Hamstring Group – Muscle mass of the posterior thigh that consists of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and the semitendinosus  Sartorius – a weak thigh flexor which helps with crossing your legs  Quadriceps Group – The muscles that powerfully extend the knee consists of the rectus femoris and three vastus muscles

21  Tibialis Anterior – This dorsiflex and invert the foot  Extensor Digitorum Longus – it is the prime mover of toe extension and is also a dorsiflexor of the foot  Fibularis Muscles – composed of the longus, brevis, and tertius. The group plantar flexes and everts the foot  Gastrocnemius – “Calf muscle.” It is the prime mover for plantar flexion of the foot  Soleus – also a strong plantar flexor

22 Take 2

23 Hamstring Group

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26  Each group will be assigned some muscles.  You will have a few minutes to come up with some a “minute to win it” activity to help other feel the discussed muscles.  Try not to use ones that waste a lot of materials (example: the tissue box with one hand)

27  I am going to show a video. As the video plays, I want your group to stand when your muscle group is being worked and sit when your muscles aren’t.


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