Presentation on theme: "Naming Skeletal Muscles"— Presentation transcript:
1Naming Skeletal Muscles Direction of the muscle fibersNamed in reference to an imaginary lineRectus – straight (parallel to line)Oblique – at a slant to the lineRelative Size of the muscleMaximus – largestMinimus – smallestLongus - longest
2Naming Skeletal Muscles Location of the muscleNamed for the bone with which they are associatedNumber of originsBi – two originsTri – threeQuad - four
3Naming Skeletal Muscles Location of the muscle’s origin and insertionExample is sternocleidomastoid = sternum, clavicle, and mastoid (process of the temporal bone)Shape of the muscleDeltoid means triangularAction of the MuscleFlexor, extensor, and adductor
4Arrangement of Fascicles (Bundles of muscle fibers) Circular – concentric rings, used for external body organs that need to close by contracting. Also known as a sphincterConvergent – Converge to a single insertion tendon. Makes a fanlike or triangular muscle
5Arrangement of Fascicles (Bundles of muscle fibers) Parallel – length of fascicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscleFusiform – Type of parallel that results in a spindle-shaped muscle with an expanded bellyPennate – feathered pattern. Short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon.Unipennate attaches to one tendonBipennate attaches to two tendonsWhile multipennate attaches to many tendons
7What do you think each of these muscles would do?
8Facial MusclesFrontalis – Covers frontal bone. Allows you to raise your eyebrows and wrinkle your foreheadOccipitalis – Covers occipital bone and pulls the scalp posteriorlyOrbicularis Oculi – circular muscle around the eye which allows your eyes to closeOrbicularis Oris – Circular muscle of the lips, also known as the kissing muscleZygomaticus – Extends from the corner of the mouth to the cheek bone. Also known as the smiling muscle
9Chewing MusclesBuccinator – Runs horizontally across the cheek and inserts into the orbicularis oris. It is also classified as a facial muscle. Responsible for flattening cheeksMasseter – covers the angle of the jaw bone. Responsible for closing the jaw by elevating the mandibleTemporalis – fanshaped muscle that covers the temporal bone. It is the synergist to the masseter
10Neck MusclesPlatysma – single sheetlike muscle that covers the anterolateral neck. Produces a downward sag of the mouthSternocleidomastoid – a pair of two headed muscles found on each side of the neck. If both contract, they flex the neck and lower your head. If one contracts, it rotates your head(Cranial aponeurosis - Sheetlike tendon on the top of the skull)
12Trunk Muscles - Anterior Pectoralis Major – large fan-shaped muscle covering the upper part of the chest. It is used to adduct and flex the armIntercostal Muscles – Deep muscles found between the ribs. They help with breathing by raising the ribcage.
13Trunk Muscles – Abdominal Girdle Rectus abdominis – most superficial abdominal muscle. They flex the vertebral column, and compress the abdominal contents during defecation and child birthExternal oblique – Make up lateral walls. They also flex the vertebral column, rotate the trunk, and bend it laterallyInternal oblique – Deep to external, run at a right angle to them, and perform the same functionsTransversus abdominis – Deepest abdominal muscle and it compress the abdominal contents
14Trunk Muscles - Posterior Trapezuis – most superficial of these muscles and resembles a kite. They extend the head as well as elevate, depress, adduct, and stabilize the scapulaLatissimus Dorsi – Covers the lower back and is responsible for extending and adducting the humerusErector Spinae – It is composed of the longissimus, iliocostalis, and spinalis. These are the main extensors of the back as well as help control the action of bending over at the waistDeltoid – triangular shaped muscles that form the shape of the shoulder and are the prime movers of arm abduction
15Muscles of the Upper Limb Biceps brachii – “The forearm muscle” that is the prime mover for flexion and is used to supinate the forearmBrachialis – muscle deep to the bicep that is used for elbow flexionBrachioradialis – a weak arm muscleTriceps brachii – the most powerful prime mover of elbow extension and is the antagonist of the bicep
16Use the descriptions and your knowledge of the body’s muscles to label the figures on the back of this paper
19Muscles of the Lower Limb Movement at the Hip Gluteus Maximus – “Butt muscle” It is a powerful hip extensor, especially when power is needed (jumping and stair climbing)Gluteus Medius – Deep to the maximus muscle and is a hip abductor and stabilizes the hip during walkingIliopsoas – a fused muscle (itiacus and psoas major) that is the prime mover of hip flexion and stabilizes upper body from falling backward while standingAdductor muscles – a group of muscles that adduct the hips together
20Muscles of the Lower Limb Movement at the Knee Hamstring Group – Muscle mass of the posterior thigh that consists of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and the semitendinosusSartorius – a weak thigh flexor which helps with crossing your legsQuadriceps Group – The muscles that powerfully extend the knee consists of the rectus femoris and three vastus muscles
21Muscles of the Lower Limb Movement at the Ankle and Foot Tibialis Anterior – This dorsiflex and invert the footExtensor Digitorum Longus – it is the prime mover of toe extension and is also a dorsiflexor of the footFibularis Muscles – composed of the longus, brevis, and tertius. The group plantar flexes and everts the footGastrocnemius – “Calf muscle.” It is the prime mover for plantar flexion of the footSoleus – also a strong plantar flexor
22Use the descriptions and your knowledge of the body’s muscles to label the figures on the back of this paperTake 2
26Demonstrate Each group will be assigned some muscles. You will have a few minutes to come up with some a “minute to win it” activity to help other feel the discussed muscles.Try not to use ones that waste a lot of materials (example: the tissue box with one hand)
27The Ultimate “Test”I am going to show a video. As the video plays, I want your group to stand when your muscle group is being worked and sit when your muscles aren’t.