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Naming Skeletal Muscles

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1 Naming Skeletal Muscles
Direction of the muscle fibers Named in reference to an imaginary line Rectus – straight (parallel to line) Oblique – at a slant to the line Relative Size of the muscle Maximus – largest Minimus – smallest Longus - longest

2 Naming Skeletal Muscles
Location of the muscle Named for the bone with which they are associated Number of origins Bi – two origins Tri – three Quad - four

3 Naming Skeletal Muscles
Location of the muscle’s origin and insertion Example is sternocleidomastoid = sternum, clavicle, and mastoid (process of the temporal bone) Shape of the muscle Deltoid means triangular Action of the Muscle Flexor, extensor, and adductor

4 Arrangement of Fascicles (Bundles of muscle fibers)
Circular – concentric rings, used for external body organs that need to close by contracting. Also known as a sphincter Convergent – Converge to a single insertion tendon. Makes a fanlike or triangular muscle

5 Arrangement of Fascicles (Bundles of muscle fibers)
Parallel – length of fascicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscle Fusiform – Type of parallel that results in a spindle-shaped muscle with an expanded belly Pennate – feathered pattern. Short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon. Unipennate attaches to one tendon Bipennate attaches to two tendons While multipennate attaches to many tendons


7 What do you think each of these muscles would do?

8 Facial Muscles Frontalis – Covers frontal bone. Allows you to raise your eyebrows and wrinkle your forehead Occipitalis – Covers occipital bone and pulls the scalp posteriorly Orbicularis Oculi – circular muscle around the eye which allows your eyes to close Orbicularis Oris – Circular muscle of the lips, also known as the kissing muscle Zygomaticus – Extends from the corner of the mouth to the cheek bone. Also known as the smiling muscle

9 Chewing Muscles Buccinator – Runs horizontally across the cheek and inserts into the orbicularis oris. It is also classified as a facial muscle. Responsible for flattening cheeks Masseter – covers the angle of the jaw bone. Responsible for closing the jaw by elevating the mandible Temporalis – fanshaped muscle that covers the temporal bone. It is the synergist to the masseter

10 Neck Muscles Platysma – single sheetlike muscle that covers the anterolateral neck. Produces a downward sag of the mouth Sternocleidomastoid – a pair of two headed muscles found on each side of the neck. If both contract, they flex the neck and lower your head. If one contracts, it rotates your head (Cranial aponeurosis - Sheetlike tendon on the top of the skull)


12 Trunk Muscles - Anterior
Pectoralis Major – large fan-shaped muscle covering the upper part of the chest. It is used to adduct and flex the arm Intercostal Muscles – Deep muscles found between the ribs. They help with breathing by raising the ribcage.

13 Trunk Muscles – Abdominal Girdle
Rectus abdominis – most superficial abdominal muscle. They flex the vertebral column, and compress the abdominal contents during defecation and child birth External oblique – Make up lateral walls. They also flex the vertebral column, rotate the trunk, and bend it laterally Internal oblique – Deep to external, run at a right angle to them, and perform the same functions Transversus abdominis – Deepest abdominal muscle and it compress the abdominal contents

14 Trunk Muscles - Posterior
Trapezuis – most superficial of these muscles and resembles a kite. They extend the head as well as elevate, depress, adduct, and stabilize the scapula Latissimus Dorsi – Covers the lower back and is responsible for extending and adducting the humerus Erector Spinae – It is composed of the longissimus, iliocostalis, and spinalis. These are the main extensors of the back as well as help control the action of bending over at the waist Deltoid – triangular shaped muscles that form the shape of the shoulder and are the prime movers of arm abduction

15 Muscles of the Upper Limb
Biceps brachii – “The forearm muscle” that is the prime mover for flexion and is used to supinate the forearm Brachialis – muscle deep to the bicep that is used for elbow flexion Brachioradialis – a weak arm muscle Triceps brachii – the most powerful prime mover of elbow extension and is the antagonist of the bicep

16 Use the descriptions and your knowledge of the body’s muscles to label the figures on the back of this paper

17 How did you do?

18 How did you do?

19 Muscles of the Lower Limb Movement at the Hip
Gluteus Maximus – “Butt muscle” It is a powerful hip extensor, especially when power is needed (jumping and stair climbing) Gluteus Medius – Deep to the maximus muscle and is a hip abductor and stabilizes the hip during walking Iliopsoas – a fused muscle (itiacus and psoas major) that is the prime mover of hip flexion and stabilizes upper body from falling backward while standing Adductor muscles – a group of muscles that adduct the hips together

20 Muscles of the Lower Limb Movement at the Knee
Hamstring Group – Muscle mass of the posterior thigh that consists of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and the semitendinosus Sartorius – a weak thigh flexor which helps with crossing your legs Quadriceps Group – The muscles that powerfully extend the knee consists of the rectus femoris and three vastus muscles

21 Muscles of the Lower Limb Movement at the Ankle and Foot
Tibialis Anterior – This dorsiflex and invert the foot Extensor Digitorum Longus – it is the prime mover of toe extension and is also a dorsiflexor of the foot Fibularis Muscles – composed of the longus, brevis, and tertius. The group plantar flexes and everts the foot Gastrocnemius – “Calf muscle.” It is the prime mover for plantar flexion of the foot Soleus – also a strong plantar flexor

22 Use the descriptions and your knowledge of the body’s muscles to label the figures on the back of this paper Take 2

23 Hamstring Group



26 Demonstrate Each group will be assigned some muscles.
You will have a few minutes to come up with some a “minute to win it” activity to help other feel the discussed muscles. Try not to use ones that waste a lot of materials (example: the tissue box with one hand)

27 The Ultimate “Test” I am going to show a video. As the video plays, I want your group to stand when your muscle group is being worked and sit when your muscles aren’t.

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