Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Muscular System Types of Body Movements 600+ skeletal muscles attached to bone or connective tissue at no less than 2 points Origin – attached to immovable.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Muscular System Types of Body Movements 600+ skeletal muscles attached to bone or connective tissue at no less than 2 points Origin – attached to immovable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscular System Types of Body Movements 600+ skeletal muscles attached to bone or connective tissue at no less than 2 points Origin – attached to immovable bone Insertion – attached to movable bone MUSCLE MOVES TOWARD ORIGIN DURING CONTRACTION

2 Most Common Types of Body Movements  Flexion (decrease angle)  Extension (increase angle)  Abduction (moving limb away)  Adduction (moving limb toward)  Rotation (move bone along longitudinal axis)  Circumduction (combination)

3 Common Types of Movement ( cont.)  Pronation (moving palm up to down; forces radius to cross ulna)  Supination (moving palm down to up into anatomical position; radius and ulna parallel)  Inversion (turning sole of foot medially)  Eversion (turning sole of foot laterally)  Dorsiflexion ( ankle movement/ instep up)  Plantar flexion (straighten ankle/instep down)

4 Types of Muscles  Movement is result of team of muscles. Whatever team can do, another team can reverse.  Prime Mover (agonist) = the muscle (of team) that has major responsibility for causing a particular movement  Ex: biceps brachii for elbow flexion  Antagonist = muscles that oppose or reverse movement (located opposite side of joint from agonist)  Ex: triceps brachii antagonizes biceps brachii, but is also prime mover for forearm extension  Synergist = muscles that help prime mover  Add force and reduce undesirable movements  Fixators = specialized synergists (stabilize)  Immobilize bone or muscle’s origin (i.e,scapula)

5 Naming Skeletal Muscle  Muscles are named on the basis of several criteria (Look for the hints!)  Direction of muscle fiber (and fascicles)- in relation to lines like midline and axis of limb)  rectus [straight] – run parallel  oblique –run at a slant  transversus – at right angles  Rectus femoris – straight muscle of thigh  Transversus abdominus

6 Naming Skeletal Muscle (cont.)  Relative size of muscle  maximus [largest] – gluteus maximus  minimus [smallest]- gluteus minimus  longus [long]- fibularis longus  brevis [short] – extensor pollicis brevis  Number of origins  Biceps [2], triceps [3], quadriceps [4]  biceps brachii, triceps brachii, quadriceps femoris

7 Naming Skeletal Muscle (cont.)  Location of muscle’s origin and insertion  Ex: intercostal muscle  “costal” = rib  runs between the ribs  Ex: temporalis muscle  overlies temporal bone  Ex: sternocleidomastoid muscle  “sternum” and “clavicle” [origin]  mastoid process of temporal [insertion]

8 Naming Skeletal Muscle (cont.)  Shape of the muscle  Deltoid = triangular  Trapezius = trapezoid  Action of the muscle  Flexor – flexor digitorum superficialis  Flexes wrist and middle phalanges  Extensor – extensor carpi radialis longus  Action, joint (wrist), lies close to radius of the forearm, size rel. to other wrist extensors  Adductor – adductor longus  Adducts, medially rotates thigh

9 Muscle Mechanics –Fascicle Arrangement  Review muscle force and speed  Patterns of fascicle arrangement  Circular – concentric rings (sphincters)  Orbicularis oculi (eye); orbicularis oris (mouth)  Convergent – fascicles converge to single tendon of insertion(triangular or fan-shaped)  Pectoralis major  Parallel (& fusiform)– straplike or spindle shaped  Sartorius (thigh to knee) – longest muscle in body  Biceps brachii – flexes elbow, supinates forearm

10 Muscle Mechanics –Fascicle Arrangement (cont.)  Pennate – attach obliquely to central tendon  Unipennate (one side of tendon) – extensor digitorum longus (leg)  Bipennate (from opposite sides of tendon) – rectus femoris (thigh) [like a feather]  Multipennate – [like many feathers together]  Deltoid muscle (shoulder)

11 Muscle Mechanics –Fascicle Arrangement (cont.)  Arrangement determines range of movement and power  Parallel = shorten most but not powerful  Power depends on total muscle cells in muscle (more cells=more power)  Bipennate and multipennate = most fibers but shorten little & very powerful

12 Bone-Muscle Relationships – lever systems  Lever systems- partnerships between muscular and skeletal systems  Lever – rigid bar that moves on a fixed point (fulcrum) when force applied  Applied force (effort) moves a resistance (load)  Joints = fulcrums  Bones = levers  Muscle contraction = effort (applied at insertion)  Load = bone + tissues + what is moved with lever

13 Bone-Muscle Relationships – lever systems (cont.)  Lever operates at mechanical advantage when load is close to fulcrum and effort is applied far from fulcrum  Used to move large load over small distance (power lever)  Slower, more stable, strength is priority  Lever operates at mechanical disadvantage when load is far from fulcrum and effort is applied near fulcrum  Force greater than the load moved (speed lever)  Force lost, but speed and range of movement gained

14 Bone-Muscle Relationships – lever systems (cont.)  Lever classes  First-class lever  Effort applied at one end of lever; load at other end; fulcrum between (scissors)  Lift head off chest  some act at mechanical advantage; others disadvantage  Second-class lever  Effort applied at one end; fulcrum at the other end; load between (wheelbarrow) (uncommon)  Standing on toes  Third-class lever  Effort applied between the load and fulcrum (tweezers) (act at great speed & mechanical disadvantage)  Most skeletal muscle


Download ppt "Muscular System Types of Body Movements 600+ skeletal muscles attached to bone or connective tissue at no less than 2 points Origin – attached to immovable."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google