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Chapter 8 MUSCULAR SYSTEM.  All movements require muscles, which are organs that use chemical energy to contract.  Walking, breathing, eating, sneezing,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 MUSCULAR SYSTEM.  All movements require muscles, which are organs that use chemical energy to contract.  Walking, breathing, eating, sneezing,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 MUSCULAR SYSTEM

2  All movements require muscles, which are organs that use chemical energy to contract.  Walking, breathing, eating, sneezing, all require muscles  Provide muscle tone  Propel body fluids and food  Generate heart beats  Distribute heat  Maintain posture WHAT DO MUSCLES DO?

3  Skeletal (majority of this chapter)  Attaches to bone and consciously controlled  Smooth-hollow internal organs, irises, blood vessels  Cardiac-heart TYPES OF MUSCLE

4  1. Muscles get shorter as they contract  2. Muscles cross at least one joint  3. Muscles have an origin and insertion  Origin: immovable end of muscle  Insertion: movable end  4. When a muscle contracts, its insertion is pulled toward the origin. RULES OF MUSCULAR ACTIVITY

5  Skeletal muscles function in groups.  Prime Mover: the muscle doing the majority of the work during a movement  Synergists: helper muscles  Antagonists: opposing muscles INTERACTIONS OF MUSCLES

6 MUSCULAR MOVEMENTS Origin (immovable end) Insertion (moveable end)

7  Flexion: angle between joint is decreased MUSCULAR MOVEMENTS

8  Extension: angle of joint is increased  Hyperextension: extension beyond normal anatomical position  Abduction: moving a part away from midline  Adduction: moving a part toward midline  Rotation: moving a part around an axis  You will look up the rest of the muscle movements for homework tonight (P in book) MUSCULAR MOVEMENTS

9  Named according to:  1. Size (pectoralis major)  2. Shape (orbicularis oris)  3. Location (tibialis anterior)  4. Movement (extensor digitorum)  5. Number of attachments (biceps brachii)  About 650 muscles in the human body MAJOR SKELETAL MUSCLES

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11  Epicranius-raises eyebrow  Orbicularis Oculi-closes eye  Orbicularis Oris-closes and protrudes lips  Buccinator-puckers cheeck  Zygomaticus-raises corner of mouth (Smile)  Platysma-draws angle of mouth downward MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION

12  (Chewing)  Masseter: elevates mandible  Temporalis: elevates mandible MUSCLES OF MASTICATION

13  Sternocleidomastoid: pulls head to one side, toward chest, or raises sternum  Splenius capitis: rotates head, bends head to one side, or brings head to upright position  Semispinalis capitis: extends head, bends head to one side, rotates head MUSCLES THAT MOVE HEAD

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15 MUSCLES THAT MOVE ARM

16  Trapezius: rotates scapula, raises arm, raises scapula, pulls scapula medially, pulls shoulder down  Deltoid: abducts arm, extends/flexes humerus  Latissimus Dorsi: extends/adducts arm, rotates arm inwardly, pulls shoulder down  Rhomboid Major: raises and adducts scapulae  Levator Scapulae: elevates scapulae  Pectoralis Minor: pulls scapula anteriorly and down  Pectoralis Major: pulls arm anteriorly and across chest, rotates humerus, adducts arm BACK, CHEST MUSCLES

17  External Oblique  Rectus Abdominus  Transversus Abdominus  Internal Oblique ABDOMINALS

18 MUSCLES THAT MOVE FOREARM

19  Biceps Brachii: flexes forearm at elbow and rotates hand laterally  Brachioradialis: flexes forearm at elbow  Triceps Brachii: extends forearm at elbow MOVE FOREARM

20  Flexor Carpi Radialis: flexes and abducts wrist  Palmaris longus: flexes wrist  Flexor Carpi Ulnaris: flexes and adducts wrist  Extensor Carpi Ulnaris: extends and adducts wrist  Extensor Digitorum: extends fingers  Extensor Carpi radialis brevis: extends wrist and abducts hand MOVE HAND

21 THIGH

22  Gluteus maximus: extends thigh  Gluteus medius: abducts and rotates thigh medially  Sartorius: flexes leg/thigh, abducts thigh, rotates thigh laterally, rotates leg medially  Semitendinosus: flexes leg, extends thigh  Semimembranosus: flexes leg, extends thigh  Quadriceps femoris (4 parts): extends leg at knee THIGH MUSCLES

23 MUSCLES THAT MOVE FOOT

24  Tibialis anterior: dorsiflexion and inversion of foot  Extensor digitorum longus: dorsiflexion and eversion of foot; extension of foot  Gastrocnemius: plantar flexion of foot and flexion of leg at knee  Flexor digitorum longus: plantar flexion and inversion of foot, flexion of four lateral toes  Tibialis posterior: plantar flexion and inversion of foot MUSCLES THAT MOVE FOOT


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