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The End of an Era and the Emergence of the “New South”

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1 The End of an Era and the Emergence of the “New South”

2 APUSH

3 Commentary… This cartoon by the famous Thomas Nast was published in Harper's Weekly in It shows how white supremacist groups like the Ku Klux Klan worked to keep freed slaves in politically and economically deprived conditions. Look at the inscriptions at the top of the cartoon. It says "The Union As It Was" and "This Is A White Man's Government." The KKK wanted to keep Blacks out of government and prevent them from voting. This cartoon by the famous Thomas Nast was published in Harper's Weekly in It shows how white supremacist groups like the Ku Klux Klan worked to keep freed slaves in politically and economically deprived conditions. Look at the inscriptions at the top of the cartoon. It says "The Union As It Was" and "This Is A White Man's Government." The KKK wanted to keep Blacks out of government and prevent them from voting.

4 APUSH “Take Five” What were the 3 types of reconstruction? What elements did they include?

5 APUSH Document Our Constitution is color-blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law..In my opinion, the judgment this day rendered will, in time, prove to be quite as pernicious as the decision made by this tribunal in the Dred Scott case…The present decision, it may well be apprehended, will not only stimulate aggressions, more or less brutal and irritating, upon the admitted rights of colored citizens, but will encourage the belief that it is possible, by means of state enactments, to defeat the beneficent purposes which the people of the US had in view when they adopted the recent amendments of the Constitution.

6 Union Victory Parade

7 Lincoln’s Presidency Recap… Emancipation Proclamation Emancipation Proclamation Freedman’s Bureau Freedman’s Bureau Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan * Amnesty for loyalty oath * Amnesty for loyalty oath * 10% voters in 1860 * 10% voters in 1860 * Suffrage for some African Americans * Suffrage for some African Americans

8 Freedmen’s Bureau (1865)  Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands.  Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen.  Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrats.

9 Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.

10 President Lincoln’s Plan  10% Plan * Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863) * Replace majority rule with “loyal rule” in the South. * He didn’t consult Congress regarding Reconstruction. * Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers. * When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized.

11 In what ways and to what extent did constitutional and social developments between 1860 and 1877 amount to a revolution? In what ways and to what extent did constitutional and social developments between 1860 and 1877 amount to a revolution?

12 APUSH Document

13 President Lincoln’s Plan  1864  “Lincoln Governments” formed in LA, TN, AR * “loyal assemblies” * They were weak and dependent on the Northern army for their survival.

14 Wade-Davis Bill (1864)  “Iron-Clad” Oath. President Lincoln Wade-Davis Bill Pocket Veto

15 Wade-Davis Bill (1864)  Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ).  Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials.  Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties. (13 th amendment) Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH) Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD)

16 A “Pogrom” Against Blacks

17 The Assassination of President Lincoln John Wilkes Booth Popularity in death

18 John Wilkes Booth

19 Ford’s Theatre "Sic Semper Tyrannis" (Thus always with tyrants)

20 Garrett Farm

21 The Gallows: Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, David Herold & George Atzerodt

22 Conspiracy Theory…

23 Andrew Johnson ( )

24 Johnson’s Presidency Restoration plan Restoration plan * Amnesty * Amnesty * Provisional Governor * Provisional Governor * Abolish slavery & Ratify 13 th Amendment etc. * Abolish slavery & Ratify 13 th Amendment etc.

25 President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)  Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (they could apply directly to Johnson)  In new constitutions, they must accept minimum conditions repudiating slavery, secession and state debts.  Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions. EFFECTS? 1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates. 2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations. 3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!

26 Growing Northern Alarm!  Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements.  Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons.  Revival of southern defiance. BLACK CODES

27 Black Codes  Purpose: * Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. * Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations.  Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers [tenant farmers].

28 Congress during Johnson’s term Radical reconstruction Radical reconstruction Response to Black Codes Response to Black Codes Civil Rights Act (1866) Civil Rights Act (1866) 14th Amendment 14th Amendment 15th Amendment 15th Amendment Tenure of Office Act Tenure of Office Act Command of the Army Act Command of the Army Act

29 13 th Amendment: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.—Abolishment of slavery 13 th Amendment: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.—Abolishment of slavery 14 th Amendment: All persons born or naturalized in the US, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny…equal protection of the laws.—Est. African American Citizenship 14 th Amendment: All persons born or naturalized in the US, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny…equal protection of the laws.—Est. African American Citizenship 15 th Amendment: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude.—The right to vote 15 th Amendment: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude.—The right to vote

30 Impeachment of the President Violation of the Tenure of Office Act Violation of the Tenure of Office Act Firing Edwin Stanton Firing Edwin Stanton Vote of no-confidence by Senate…. Vote of no-confidence by Senate….

31 Johnson the Martyr / Samson If my blood is to be shed because I vindicate the Union and the preservation of this government in its original purity and character, let it be shed; let an altar to the Union be erected, and then, if it is necessary, take me and lay me upon it, and the blood that now warms and animates my existence shall be poured out as a fit libation to the Union. (February 1866)

32 Radical Plan for Readmission  Civil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision.  Required new state constitutions, including black suffrage and ratification of the 13 th and 14 th Amendments.  In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that authorized the military to enroll eligible black voters and begin the process of constitution making.

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34 The South under Radical Reconstruction Carpetbaggers & Scalawags Carpetbaggers & Scalawags Education reform Education reform Shift in landownership Shift in landownership Tenantry Tenantry Sharecropping Sharecropping Crop-lien system Crop-lien system Cash crops Cash crops Negroes in the South Negroes in the South Rebuilding family structures Rebuilding family structures Freedmen’s schools Freedmen’s schools Political gains Political gains

35 General Oliver Otis Howard

36 Freedmen’s Bureau School

37 Ulysses S. Grant ( )

38 Grant’s Presidency Scandals Scandals Panic of 1873 Panic of 1873 National Greenback Party National Greenback Party Seward’s Folly Seward’s Folly Treaty of Washington Treaty of Washington


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