Presentation on theme: "Objective: To analyze the government’s plan for the South after the Civil War. Do Now: Use the glossary in your textbook to define the following terms."— Presentation transcript:
Objective: To analyze the government’s plan for the South after the Civil War. Do Now: Use the glossary in your textbook to define the following terms. freedmen Reconstruction - Men and women who had been slaves. - rebuilding of the South after the Civil War
Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?
The Defeated South A: Because the majority of battles took place in the South, many Southern houses, farms, bridges, and railroads were destroyed. Q: Based upon your observations of the map below, how were the North and the South effected differently as a result of the Civil War?
Ruins in Front of the Capitol – Richmond, VA, 1865
Grounds of the Ruined Arsenal with Scattered Shot and Shell - Richmond, VA, April 1865
Guns and Ruined Buildings Near the Tredegar Iron Works - Richmond, VA, April 1865
Below: Atlanta, Georgia Above: Charleston, South Carolina
A Southern armored railroad gun has gone as far as it can on these rails, typifying Civil War destruction of Southern railroad tracks. (Virginia) This famous photo was taken looking across the ruins of the railroad bridge in Fredericksburg, Virginia
· Confederate money became worthless, and banks closed.
· Newly freed slaves, freedmen, had no land, jobs, or education. Left and right: post-Civil War Ohio
constructionRe The period of time after the Civil War when the South was rebuilt. The federal program to rebuild the South. 1865 - 1877
President Lincoln’s Plan 10% Plan * Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863) * Replace majority rule with “loyal rule” in the South. * He didn’t consult Congress regarding Reconstruction. * Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers. * When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized.
Competing Reconstruction Plans Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan: I.Once 10% of the state’s voters swore loyalty to the U.S…. II. …Southern states could rejoin the national government after they abolished slavery. 1864 “Lincoln Governments” formed in LA, TN, AR * “loyal assemblies” * They were weak and dependent on Northern army for their survival.
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ). Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials. Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties. Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH) Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD) “Iron-Clad” Oath. “State Suicide” Theory [MA Senator Charles Sumner] “Conquered Provinces” Position [PA Congressman Thaddeus Stevens]
Congress’ Wade-Davis Bill: I. It required that a majority of Southern white men swear loyalty to the U.S…. II. …and denied former Confederate soldiers the right to vote or hold political office. President Lincoln Pocket Veto Wade-Davis Bill
13 th Amendment Ratified in December, 1865. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen. Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrats.
· The Freedmen’s Bureau provided food, clothing, jobs, medical care, and education for millions of former slaves and poor whites. Freedmen’s Bureau A teacher and elementary school students posing on the steps of the Hill School, ca. late 19th Century. The school was a part of the Christiansburg Institute, which was first opened by the U. S. Freedmen's Bureau in 1866. (Montgomery County, VA)