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How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation [Module 3] Key issues of urban sanitation.

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Presentation on theme: "How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation [Module 3] Key issues of urban sanitation."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation [Module 3] Key issues of urban sanitation

2 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics 2 Key elements of urban sanitation Options for urban sanitation and key factors determining specific requirements Options in detail Slum connectivity Collection and discussion of cases from participants Understand key issues of urban sanitation

3 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Leach Pit Land Application decentralized on-site sanitation User Interface / toilet Key elements of urban sanitation Conveyance Sewage Treatment Plant Drying Beds centralized off-site sanitation Emptying Transportation Leaching field decentralized on-site / off-site sanitation Septic Tank Soak Pit 3

4 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Key elements of urban sanitation – a schematic view source: MoUD, WSP: Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India – A Guide for Decision Making, September 2008, page 17 4

5 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Options for urban sanitation and key factors determining specific requirements Size Location System soil groundwater topography < 1 lakh population 1-10 lakh population million plus mega cities on-site / off-site decentralized / centralized Key questions: Can wastewater be disposed on site? When and where is sewerage required and viable? Which arrangements are required for the management of wastewater and fecal sludge? How does the demand for reuse influence the choice of technology? Settlement density and space source of water existing structures 5

6 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Key factor settlement Housing and population density amount of wastewater is function of density availibilty of space is function of density Source of water protection of water from wells or tubewells 6

7 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Key factor size and treatment options source: Centre for Science and Development: Policy Paper on Septage Management in India, May 2011, page 22, adapted 7

8 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Key factor location Soil type operation of soakaways rocky ground increases costs High groundwater level reduces scope for infiltration of wastewater sewers to be laid below water table to ensure self-cleansing possible intrusion of groundwater into sewer high pumping requirements / costs Topography – high altitudes, steep terrain rocky ground increases costs for underground facilities space limitations flushing water in latrines may freeze frozen, impermeable ground during winter limits soaking capacities base of leach pits with enough distance from groundwater sewer can be gravity driven 8

9 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Key factor system on-site low density housing off-site reliable water supply sufficient fall to avoid pumping in sewers high maintenance costs in areas with insufficient MSWM requires sewer system high density housing availability of services to remove and transport sludges and septage ground conditions allow absorption of wastewater and avoid contamination of groundwater low water consumption 9

10 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Leach Pit Land Application decentralized on-site sanitation User Interface / toilet Options in detail Conveyance Sewage Treatment Plant Drying Beds centralized system Emptying Transportation Leaching field decentralized treatment system Septic Tank Soak Pit Access to toilets Septage Management 10 Treatment & disposal

11 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Access to toilets Common weaknesses and threats Where to locate? What to consider? Actions identified in CSPs Types of toilets 11 Best practice example

12 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Access to toilets – where to locate, what to consider? Location Household Group of HH Community Public Institutional School and pre-school Consider special needs of women, children and disabled O & M All market areas and public places to have toilet and urinal facilities Proper excreta disposal facility Provision for maintaining aesthetic look User charges 12

13 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Access to toilets 13 Common weaknesses and threats  O & M  Regulation  Coverage  Construction (1)availability of land (2)gaps in coverage of wards (3)lack in commercial areas  Behaviour (1)gender issues (2)barriers (3)no water supply (4)discharge to open drains / water bodies (1)limited opening times (2)cleaning (3)maintenance (4)monitoring (1)hygienic unawareness (2)habit of open defecation and urination widespread willingness to pay for service (1)unclear responsibilities (2)no dedicated units (3)family card system not realistic (4)complicated prosecution of violations

14 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Access to toilets 14 Actions identified by CSPs  O & M  Communities  Technology, planning and construction (1)awareness campaigns (2)behaviour change (3)community involvement in O&M (4)community involvement in financing  Regulations (1)gender sensitivity (2)water supply (3)floating population (4)mobile facilities (1)24/7 access (2)map of existing public toilets (3)map of toilets in public buildings (4)SOPs (5)inspection and monitoring protocol (6)BOT approaches (1)target standards for seats / inhabitants (2)target standards for access within distance (3)guidance documents

15 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics User interface (User, behavior & Toilets)  Operates without water  Placed over a pit  Can be built anywhere with locally available material.  Operates without water  Separates the solid (feces) from the liquid (urine)  Separation reduces the smell  Water seal thus reducing the odor  Flushed by stored water  Regular water supply is a must  Modern version of pour flush toilet Dry toilet Urine diverting dry toilet Pour flush toilet Cistern-flush toilet The elements of sanitation – types of toilets to on-site dry system to on- or off- site water reliant system

16 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras On-site–dry system Feces & urine Simple pit latrine Ventilated improved pit latrine, VIP Composting latrine Composting Relocation of latrine after the pit is full or agricultural use of composted material Wastewater type On-site system On-site treatment Disposal / Off-site use 16

17 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras On-site water reliant systems Black water Leach pit Individual septic tank Overhung latrine Composting & degradation of wastewater constituents Agricultural use of composted material & water leakage into groundwater Wastewater type On-site system On-site treatment Disposal / Off-site use Anaerobic degradation Effluent discharge into water body Sludge disposal at environmentally acceptable areas Agricultural use of effluent

18 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras Good Examples: Tiruchirapalli MC, Tamil Nadu 18 source: Situation frequent outbreaks of water borne diseases open drains with wastewater, feces and HH waste crossing quarter Set-up Process Needs assessment in communities to identify interventions required renovation of toilets community toilets were available (under MC) but not well managed and maintained, no water supply and no disposal, frequent open defecation Lead agency: local NGO WaterAid Activities renovation and construction of toilets (community and private) with financial support from Water Aid land provided by MC including water and electricity supply identification and capacitation of work force for daily O&M establishinh sustainable business plan for O&M before the project the town was one of India‘s least hygienic cities community based system for O&M 211 approved and 75 unapproved slums with approx. 23% of the city‘s population involvement of women‘s groups: established Women‘snSelf Help Group formed Sanitation and Hygiene Education Teams who implemented and monitored the whole programme at community level Holistic development approach combined provision of toilets with empowerment of communities to improve theri health, environment and living standards effective partnership between MC, communities and NGOs to manage and maitain toilets sustainable financial management: pay & use system profits used for awareness generation and necessary works rotating responsibilty within SHGs later men‘s and children‘s grouops were established to partticipate in sanitation activities

19 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras Good Examples: Tiruchirapalli MC, Tamil Nadu 19 source: Sustainability environment and natural resources Lessons learnt The town is now ranked as 6th in sanitation ranking of Indian cities financial and economic issues health, hygiene and nutrition socio cultural and institutional aspects technology and operation Principal challenge was to generate interest in the communities including willingness to pay for toilet utilization Local poliiticans interfered with the project agitating against user fees NGO had to ensure continuous community work including HH visits Key success factors: supportive MC understanding and sensitive to the issues and supportive to community action community involvement and support involvement of women inclusive community management ownership Land tenure and water and electrcity supply provided by supportive MC gender mainstreaming and empowerment of women

20 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Septage management Common weaknesses and threats Definition of septage Actions identified in CSPs Management 20 Best practice example

21 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Septage – Definition and characteristics The physical and chemical characteristics vary on size and design of the storage facility, pumping frequency and climatic conditions. 21 What is septage? Some characteristics Can characteristics vary? Septage has offensive odour, contains significant levels of grease, grit, hair, debris and pathogenic micro organisms. “Septage” is septic tank sludge that is a combination of raw primary sludge and anearobically produced raw sludge.

22 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Septage – components Components of Septage: Scumfloats on the top and is generally where the bacteria live that treat the waste Effluentthe semi-treated liquid that comprises the majority of the material in the septic tank Sludgesolids which collect at the bottom of the tank 22

23 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Septage management 23 Common weaknesses and threats  O & M  Regulation  Natural conditions  Construction (1)high groundwater table (1)unscientific construction (2)discharge to open water bodies / drains (3)lack of land for treatment and disposal facilities (1)low knowledge on spatial distribution (2)weak maintenance (3)lack of cleansing (4)manual desludging (5)lack of mechanization and equipment (6)no treatment / uncontrolled disposal (7)no monitoring and control (1)overlapping functions and roles (2)lack or weak enforcement of regulations and bye-laws

24 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Septage management 24 Actions identified by CSPs  O & M  Communities / households  Planning, construction, system upgrade (1)awareness campaigns (2)behaviour change (3)community involvement (4)O&M and private / community level  Regulations (1)rehabilitation of existing tanks (2)upgradation of existing tanks (3)avoid or treat sewage outflow into drains (4)integrate tanks into off-site treatment system (1)clear demarcation between on-site and off- site systems (2)mapping of all septic tanks (3)sustainable operator model (4)SOPs (1)establish building codes for septic tanks (2)establish bye-laws for on- site sanitation, and septage management (3)establish on-site sanitation monitoring framework

25 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Emptying of septic tanks 2Transportation to the treatment facility in a specially designed vehicles 3Emptying of septage at treatment facility 4Scientific treatment 5Dry compost – at drying beds (as a part of treatment facility 6Compost application and use of treated water for agriculture purpose 7Agriculture produce for human consumption Septage management It is the process of managing of septic tanks including desludging, transporting, treating, and disposal of its contents. 25 What is septage management?

26 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Septage management – practices 26

27 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics ElementsRegulatory provisions Designing and construction of a septic tank Regulation & provision for overseeing design, installation, use and inspection Mechanism for self reporting & record keeping Emptying of septic tanksRegulation & provision for periodic emptying/ desluding at 3-5 years frequency Mechanism for self reporting and record keeping Transportation to treatment facility in specially designed vehicle Regulation & provision for safe transport of septage to the treatment site Emptying at scientific treatment facility including drying beds Regulation & provision for treatment facility and scientific treatment methods Dry compost and treated water Provision, support & incentives to make use of dry compost & treated water for agriculture Provision for quality testing of treated water & compost Septage management – elements and regulatory provisions 27

28 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras Management of a Septic Tanks 28

29 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras Correct Practice Wrong Practices Management of effluent OR 29

30 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras Improved Septic tank   Conventional Septic tank 30

31 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras Liquid effluent disposal / reuse Pre-treatment of septage Land application Treatment at CETP Treatment at independend facilities Conventional septic tank Improved septic tank / Anaerobic baffled reactor Non- conventional Management of septage Septage Treatment Options 31

32 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras Good Examples: Septage treatment facilities in Surabaya, Indonesia 32 source: Centre for Science and Development: Policy Paper on Septage Management in India, May 2011, page 26 Situation only 11 cities have WWTP Government established 150 septage treatment plants in the country Set-up sludge collection and transportation provided by private hauler truck service Sanitation agency collects monthly tipping fees based on septage volume Framework City government framework: nuisance permits tipping fees water quality management water pollution control Service providers have licenses for collection, transport and disposal STP opertaed by local agency one such plant was established in Surabaya (3 mil. inhabitants) 87% of the houses have access to improved sanitation facilities

33 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras capacity: 400m³/day modified activated sludge process drying bedsmanure source: Centre for Science and Development: Policy Paper on Septage Management in India, May 2011, page 26

34 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Centralized systems Common weaknesses and threats Actions identified in CSPs Process 34 Summary centralized – de-centralized systems

35 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Centralized systems 35 Common weaknesses and threats  O & M  Regulation  Natural conditions  Construction (1)topography (2)bedrock (3)high groundwater table (1)sewer connection only for black water (2)no connection of open drains (3)missing links in network (4)inadequate pumping capacities (5)inadequate treatment technology (6)inadequate capacity of the system (1)leakages in network (2)choking (3)no monitoring of functionality (4)no regular O&M (5)underutilization of the system (6)no reuse of treated water (1)high connection charges (2)high service costs (3)overlapping functions and roles (4)lack or weak enforcement of regulations and bye-laws  Coverage (1)low coverage (2)low connection (3)low availability of land for facilities and disposal (4)narrow streets

36 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Centralized systems 36 Actions identified by CSPs  O & M  Planning, construction, system upgrade  Regulations (1)training for plumber certification (2)STP to receive and treat septage (1)clear demarcation between on-site and off- site systems (2)mapping of sewerage and connections (3)address choking complaints (4)bulk metering at trunk lines and STP inlet (5)O&M contracts ROT (rehabilitate, operate, transfer) approach (6)SOPs (1)waste water quality monitoring protocol

37 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Elements and options or centralized treatment systems Sources of waste water Conveyance system = sewer Central treatment Disposal Conventional sewer Simplified sewer Solid free sewer High investment Specialized knowledge Maintenance Less stringent design standards Cheaper Laid under sidewalks/in front of backyards Connected to the outflow of a septic tank or interceptor tanks Laid at shallow depth Follow the topography Constructed wetlands Waste stabilization ponds Suitable for pre- settled wastewater Require specialized knowledge High investment For high strength & centralized treatment facilities Require large area Anaerobic ponds, facultative and aerobic ponds 37

38 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics De-centralized systems Features of de- centralized systems Process O & M 38 Summary centralized – de-centralized systems Best practice example

39 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics DEWATS allows treatment of organic waste water from domestic and industrial sources DEWATS is featured through modular design of all components Hence it is flexible and allows efficient treatment for organic wastewater flows from 1-1,000 m 3 per day DEWATS systems are tolerant towards inflow fluctuation Design and construction are long lasting and reliable DEWTAS do not require sophisticated or costly maintenance DEWATS can complement conventional treatment systems for more sustainable and effective service De-centralised Waste Water Treatment Systems - DEWATS 39

40 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics DEWATS :Horizontal flow System DEWATS :Vertical flow System 40

41 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics The most critical items in which operator intervention is necessary are: O&M of DEWATS System 41 Adjustment of water levels Maintenance of flow uniformity (inlet and outlet structures) Management of vegetation Odor control Maintenance of berms (walls)

42 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras CentralizedDecentralized Size of the citySuitable for large citiesSuitable for any locality Capital costsLarge capital cost O&M costsHigh O & M costLow O & M cost O&M requirementsHighly technical O & M requirements Not very technical O & M requirements Managerial capacityDifficult to manageEasy to manage Electricity supplyRequired high electricityVery low or no electricity required Modular systemNo modular implementation possible Modular implementation possible Size of populationSmaller population not possible and not cost effective Units as required may be constructed depending on city and population growth Summary: centralized VS decentralized treatment 42

43 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras Options for collection and drainage of wastewater – decision tree source: MoUD, WSP: Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India – A Guide for Decision Making, September 2008, page back to discussion of centralized systems back to discussion of de-centralized systems

44 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras Good Examples: Decentralized wastewater treatment, Agra 44 source: Situation central, high density, low income quarter open drains with wastewater, feces and HH waste crossing quarter Set-up Process Project implementation: (1)Pre construction (2)Construction (3)Post construction – O&M through community Installation of fully functional 5 chamber DEWAT system approx. 450 HH, 2350 inhab., 85% open defecation Lead agency: Centre for Urban and Rural Excellence (CURE) Agra MC, USAID and Cities Alliance Pre construction:  planning, system design  site visits  community consultation  identification of land  approvals  contracting of local work force Community involvement decision making implementation and monitoring monetary support for toilet construction sanitation committees – including SW collection empowering youth and women for income generation no waste collection or disposal system adjacent to quarter large open drain with waste water from upstream settlements

45 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras Good Examples: Decentralized wastewater treatment, Agra 45 source: Sustainability environment and natural resources Lessons learnt Main challenge was to get te approval for construction of the DEWAT facility Awareness raising regarding sanitation is a must for reduction of open defecation financial and economic issues health, hygiene and nutrition socio cultural and institutional aspects technology and operation O&M could be settled through intense community involvement DEWAT requires continuous flow of water, daily supervision and cleansing is executed by the local community Involvment of the community from the very begiining creates ownership and supports later O&M and proper functioning Infrastructure development has to be combined with community development and engagDay-to-day involvement of the community is importasnt for long-term sustainability Holistic approach including sanitation, environment ans livelihood ensured general upgrading of quality of life

46 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Treatment & disposal Treatment process in centralized systems Treatment process in decentralized systems Septage treatment 46 Reuse of residuals

47 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Process Flow Diagram for a typical large-scale two step treatment plant 47 Pre-treatment :  removes the heavy solids to prevent blockages in the following treatments processes  aeriation to allow removal of scum Primary treatment :  removes organic and inorganic solids by the physical process of sedimentation and floatation. Pre- and primary treatment are summarized as physical treatment. Secondary treatment :  removes the dissolved and colloidal organic substances from waste water through microorganisms. Secondary treatment is known as biological treatment.

48 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics What is meant by tertiary treatment? What is meant? Possible utilization Technology “Tertiary treatment” is used to improve the quality of treated wastewater so that it can be further utilized (re-use) Mechanical sand filter disk filter active coal filter micro filter cleansing water for the treatment plant, re-use in industrial cleaning processes gardening flushing of toilets cooling water Chemical precipitation flocculation UV-desinfection, ozonation, Hypochloridation

49 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics DEWATS – treatment process scheme taken from DEWATS Guidebook, p.35 / 36 49

50 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Septage treatment and disposal source: Centre for Science and Development: Policy Paper on Septage Management in India, May 2011, page 18 To stabilze septage:  decreasing odours,  reducing levels of pathogens and  further decay raising pH reduction of organic compounds, production of methane, requires sludge for co- treatment aeration to biologically reduce organic compounds and odour mix with bulking agent, aerte and turn process heat destroys pathogens possibility of odours surface application sub-surface application burial

51 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Reuse of residuals 51 Agricultural reuse Organic waste can be used as fertilizer or soil conditioners Treated wastewater can be used for irrigation with appropriate precautions Reuse in aquaculture In the production of micro algae, aquatic macrophytes and fish that are used as animal feed or as compost fertilizer For fish culture Biogas production(anaerobic sludge digestion) Fuel for cooking heating and lighting Fuel for boilers and combustion engines 51

52 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Slum connectivity Common weaknesses and threats Options for improvement 52 Best practice example

53 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Connectivity of slums 53 Common weaknesses and threats  Coverage  Construction (1)availability of land (2)difficult physical conditions  Community (1)waste water disposal through open drains (2)septic tanks discharge in open drains (3)stagnation of water in drains (1)hygienic unawareness (2)habit of open defecation and urination (3)low capacities to contribute widespread willingness to pay for service  Decision making (1)low political will to invest

54 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Possible options Delink Land tenure issues with provision of sanitation facilities Provide situation specific facilities such as group toilet, community toilet and public toilet where individual toilets are not possible Encourage and empower local political leadership to participate and advocate Build community capacities to use and maintain the facilities Build community capacities on importance of contributing user fee in O & M Community engagements and participation Financing options: Grant, subsidies, microcredit, credit linkage 54

55 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras Good Examples: Ahmedabad Slum Networking Programme, Ahmedabad MC 55 source: Situation 5 lakh slum dwellers without toilet facilities or water supply open defecation and urination as major problem Set-up MC: 80% later 90% of costs HH: 20% in cash or kind HH income less Rs 10,000/year Process Process of work: simple application by HH site inspection availability of space without obstruction of roads sanction construction through applicant AMC provides funds to private HH for toilet construction 1089 slum pockets 1383 chawls Lead agency: AMC NGOs: mobilization of communities, encourage their partnership participating HHs ensured not to be evicted for at least 10 years (written contract) AMC zonal slum improvement cells provide technical support continuous community involvement AMC sought wider support in civil society to generate additional funding triggered broad improvement of living conditions: formation of residents‘ associations women and youth groups health and day care centres informal education

56 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Extras Good Examples: Ahmedabad Slum Networking Programme, Ahmedabad MC 56 source: Sustainability environment and natural resources Lessons learnt involvement of community, formal partnership and creatoin of slum level associations created ownership and promoted and ensured maintenence Individual facilities improved status of HHs and motivated them to take care for the facilities financial and economic issues health, hygiene and nutrition socio cultural and institutional aspects technology and operation Private sector was ready to provide significant financing Investment in basic services and provision of land tenure triggers shelter upgrading through the dwellers Proper mobilization motivates dwellers to contribute and take ownership Infrastructure development has to be combined with community development and engagement to achieve and ensure substantial improvement of living conditions Market value of houses in the slums increased through the project

57 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Activities 57 Activity: Collection of case studies and best practices from participants Analyse and discuss cases / best practices contributed by participants. The cases shall deal either with best practices in urban sanitation in the home towns of the participants or with problems in urban sanitation encountered by the participants during their work. The cases shall be related to one of the steps of the key elements of urban sanitation. 1.Identify and select the case bringers 2.Select a facilitator and time-keeper for each working group 3.The case bringer describes the case briefly the facilitator documents the core issues of the case; please ensure common understanding of the case.

58 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Activities Activity: Collection of case studies and best practices from participants 4.Discussion of the case along the following headlines: Brief description Activities undertaken Obstacles encountered / key reasons of the problem Key factors for success / options to tackle the problem Key factors for success shall consider the following factors:  Vision, strategy for implementation  Institutional structure, cooperation, support from key actors  Management  Capacity development  Availability and provision of resources (staff, financing, land, infrastructure)  Specific drivers 5.Presentation Conclusions and recommendations will be discussed in plenary

59 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M3: Understand key issues of urban sanitation Module 3: Basics Indo-German Environment Programme (IGEP) Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sustainable Urban Habitat B-5/2, First Floor, Safdurjung Encalve, New Delhi , Tel: /01/02 Thank you very much


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