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 Carry both sewage and storm water.  During average rainfalls the volume of water is 5-15 times greater than normal.  Sewage treatment plants are not.

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Presentation on theme: " Carry both sewage and storm water.  During average rainfalls the volume of water is 5-15 times greater than normal.  Sewage treatment plants are not."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Carry both sewage and storm water.  During average rainfalls the volume of water is 5-15 times greater than normal.  Sewage treatment plants are not designed to process this massive volume of water.  During storms, untreated sewage and storm water may flow directly into river. ◦ Ex. Potomac River, Washington D.C.

3 1. Activated sludge process-air is pumped into the tank which supplies bacteria with the oxygen they need to break down the organic matter. Then pumped to a second tank where remaining solids settle out.

4  The speed that wastewater moves through the soil

5 4. Digesters- sludge from the primary and secondary settling tanks is piped to large tanks that re heated to 95F. Sludge held days so anaerobic bacteria in waste can digest more organic material. Natural gas or methane is a waste product. Some is burned to provide heat for digesters and also heat for buildings nearby.

6 5. As sewage enters, it flows through a vertical bar screen that removes rags, sticks, and other large solids. The trash is scraped from bars and taken to a landfill

7 6. Primary Treatment: physical separation of liquids and solids. 1/3 rd of the suspended solids (organic matter) settles out to the bottom of the tank and called sludge. Floating grease and oils are skimmed off the surface of the water. The sludge and the effluent, the partially treated wastewater, are piped to separate tanks for further treatment.

8  Sludge = biosolids WHAT DO WE DO WITH IT? 1. EPA approved sites off the coast 2. Farmers can use as fertilizers but must be tested for disease-causing agents and nutrient content (N P K) 3. Used to make compost

9 Effluent Partially treated wastewater that remains after solids are removed by settling The treated wastewater that enters a river through the outfall pipe at a sewage treatment plant

10  Holds wastewater before it enters the soil absorption field.

11  After secondary treatment, wastewater is disinfected through an outfall pipe into a body of water nearby.  Chlorination – sodium hypochlorite is added to kill any disease-causing bacteria that might remain in the water.  Disadvantage – chlorine reacts with organic compounds to form trihalomethanes, a carcinogenic. Chlorine is also toxic to some aquatic organisms.

12 Same as # 6 - 1/3 rd of the suspended solids (organic matter) settles out to the bottom of the tank and called sludge. SLUDGE = BIOSOLIDS

13  The rivers smelled of sewage and water- borne diseases: diseases cause by organisms in the water were common  In the mid 1800’s – people living near the river died of cholera  Caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria in wastes in the water.

14 Primary and Secondary treatment can remove 85% of the organic matter and nutrients from the sewage. To reduce the amount of organic matter

15  2. Trickling filters - a tank filled with a rock-like or grid system that is coated with slime, which contains algae, bacteria, and other pollutant tolerant organisms. The effluent is sprayed over the tank and as it trickles over the organisms, they remove most of the organic matter and nutrients from the wastewater.

16  Sludge = biosolids WHAT DO WE DO WITH IT? 1. EPA approved sites off the coast 2. Farmers can use as fertilizers but must be tested for disease-causing agents and nutrient content (N P K) 3. Used to make compost, landscape plants, fields where corn is grown for farm animals

17  Industries must pretreat wastewater before dumping it into the sewers to reduce the levels of heavy metals.  Required to pretreat wastewater so toxic wastes don’t interfere with the treatment process.

18  Another method for primary and secondary treatment that requires large amounts of land and less expensive to build/maintain.  A lagoon is a shallow pond where sewage is held for days.  In warm climates, algae and bacteria in a series of lagoons provide acceptable primary and secondary sewage treatment.

19 18. Digesters- sludge from the primary and secondary settling tanks is piped to large tanks that re heated to 95F. Sludge held days so anaerobic bacteria in waste can digest more organic material. Natural gas or methane is a waste product. Some is burned to provide heat for digesters and also heat for buildings nearby.

20  Will pollute nearby streams due to leaching of too much sludge or septage is applied to land nearby.

21  Bacteria normally digest about 50% of the solids that remain in the tank. The remainder will accumulated in the bottom as sludge.  The mixture of fluids and solids pumped from the tank is called septage. Septage contains disease-causing organisms. It us usually disposed as spray on farmland.

22  All cities are required by law to provide both primary and secondary sewage treatment before releasing wastewater into a river.

23  In warmer climates, Hyacinths are added to lagoons to control odors, they use nitrates and phosphates, and roots filter the water.  In cooler climates, duckweed, watercress or cattails are used.  To control mosquitoes, fish that eat the larvae and bats that eat the adults are introduced.

24  Industries must pretreat wastewater before dumping it into the sewers to reduce the levels of heavy metals.  Required to pretreat wastewater so toxic wastes don’t interfere with the treatment process.

25 Primary and Secondary treatment can remove 85% of the organic matter and nutrients from the sewage.

26 The 2000 National Water Quality Inventory reports that: 40% of streams 45% of lakes 50% of estuaries were not clean enough to support fishing and swimming.

27  Septic Tank – a large tank buried in the ground to treat sewage from an individual home or business. ◦ Solids settle to the bottom, bacteria break down organic matter, and the effluent flows through piles into the soil absorption field (drain field).

28  After secondary treatment, wastewater is disinfected through an outfall pipe into a body of water nearby.  Chlorination – sodium hypochlorite is added to kill any disease-causing bacteria that might remain in the water.  Disadvantage – chlorine reacts with organic compounds to form trihalomethanes, a carcinogenic. Chlorine is also toxic to some aquatic organisms.

29  Carry both sewage and storm water.  During average rainfalls the volume of water is 5-15 times greater than normal.  Sewage treatment plants are not designed to process this massive volume of water.  During storms, untreated sewage and storm water may flow directly into river. ◦ Ex. Potomac River, Washington D.C.

30  For many years our rivers were used to carry wastewater away from the cities.  The industrial revolution and the invention of the w.c. (water closet) increased the river’s load of wastes(organic matter).  The rivers smelled of sewage and water- borne diseases: diseases cause by organisms in the water were common

31  The removal of organic matter and nutrients from wastewater is dependent on the length of time the wastewater remains in the treatment tanks or in the lagoon.

32  Sludge = biosolids WHAT DO WE DO WITH IT? 1. EPA approved sites off the coast 2. Farmers can use as fertilizers but must be tested for disease-causing agents and nutrient content (N P K) 3. Used to make compost, landscape plants, fields where corn is grown for farm animals 4. Golf course, corn fields

33  Septic Tank – a large tank buried in the ground to treat sewage from an individual home or business.  Holds wastewater for at least  24 hours before being released into drainage field


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