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® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 A treatment process to minimise the effect of Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis (PDD). Another solution from PTS.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 What is Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis ( PDD)? Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis (PDD) was first recognized in the US in 1980. It is an infectious-claw disease in cattle caused by a bacteria. Specific etiology is unknown but spirochetes have been consistently isolated from the lesions, tentatively identified as Treponema spp. Affected cows will develop sore eczema on the skin (canopy edge) related to clover. Eczema is painful and can cause lameness of different degrees. It lowers reproductive efficiency and reduces milk production. Problems with digital dermatitis occurs mainly in groups where poor hygiene in manure paths may exist or with introduction of infected animals into the herd. The appearance and location of the lesion as well as its transmission to other cattle differentiate it from foot rot.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 What is Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis ( PDD)? Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) and digital dermatitis (DD) are often thought of as different stages of the same disease process. PDD being the more chronic form with the development of papilloma-like structures usually on the plantar surface of the hind foot just proximal to the heel bulbs. It is characterized by epidermal proliferation that after several weeks produces the “hairy warts” or papillomatous lesions.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 A topical Anti-Biotic therapy with a light wrap for 3—5 days will generally resolve all but the most advanced infestation. Vaccines are being used with promising but irregular results. What do veterinarians recommend for the TREATMENT of PDD?
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Studies have shown that a consistent use of a footbath with either formalin or copper sulphate as a disinfectant, will show a positive impact on PDD in dairy cows. Footbaths must be properly maintained to effectively prevent contamination which limits the impact of both formalin and copper sulphate. What do veterinarians recommend for PREVENTING PDD?
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Formalin : A suspected carcinogen and known respiratory, eye and skin contact irritant. When mixed with water, is effective for 150 cows before recharging the solution. Copper Sulphate : An effective method but copper sulphate is limited in solubility, the footbath must be recharged about every 200 cows. Healthy Hooves® with Copper Sulphate : A low pH, US patented, triple buffered formula that solublizes copper sulphate as it is mixed. This reduces copper sulphate by 80% and is effective for 400 cows before recharging. What are my options?
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 How does Formalin compare? Formalin is a known irritant and suspected carcinogen. It can be effective in limited applications. Tests have proven formalin ineffective at concentrations below 2% or operating temperatures below 10 degrees Celsius. Evaporation alone will reduce the solution to 2% concentration in 24—48 hours. Manure contamination and use of solution will further reduce efficacy. Studies show a typical formalin footbath is effective to treat only 150 or fewer cows per charge.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Beware: Formalin is dangerous! A known irritant and a suspected carcinogen. Symptoms: range from mild irritation to permanent corneal cloudiness and loss of vision. As the concentration increases, the eyes become itchy and watery. Eye Contact Symptoms: Mild irritation to severe dermatitis. Acne, sores or abrasions allow formalin to enter the body more readily. Skin Contact and Absorption Symptoms: Severe irritation of the tissues lining the mouth, throat and stomach. Low concentration can cause difficulty breathing, burning of the nose and throat, cough and heavy tearing. Higher concentrations can cause severe coughing, chest tightness and swelling, or spasm in the throat. Absorption into the blood-stream through the digestive tract can cause damage to the liver or other internal organs. Inhalation and Ingestion
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Why Copper Sulphate? Copper has been proven effective in the treatment of the bacteria that causes Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis (PDD). Copper Sulphate (CuSO 4 ) has been the preferred source of Copper. CuSO 4, when dissolved in water, produces Copper ions (Cu++), which kill bacteria.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 But, there is an issue… …Copper is a heavy metal !
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Environmental Concerns Copper disposal is a growing concern of many dairy farmers. …And it isn’t going to get any better.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Legislative Activity Increasing environmental concerns are stirring lobbyists and activists to create and promote legislation that will reduce heavy metals.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Legislative Activity When enacted, legislation will lead to additional operating costs to comply with regulations or possible fines for noncompliance.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Question for Today How do I minimise the effect of Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis (PDD) while reducing Copper Sulphate in footbaths and eliminating the dangers of formalin?
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 The answer is… Healthy Hooves ® Healthy Hooves ® the Copper Delivery System ®
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Healthy Hooves® Healthy Hooves® uses a US patented, low pH, triple buffered formula. A 2% solution will effectively dissolve copper sulphate resulting in a chemically chelated compound. Healthy Hooves® Healthy Hooves® overcomes the solubility issue and more importantly, controls the release of the cupric ion (Cu ++). Copper is released by biological demand instead of the water conditions. As solubility increases, copper remains bio-available thereby reducing copper sulphate use by 80% or more.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 The CuSO 4 “Solubility Issue” CuSO 4 solubility is completely dependent upon pH. As pH increases, solubility of CuSO 4 decreases. Yu-sen E. Lin (2001, October). Negative Effect of High pH on Biocidal Efficacy of Copper and Silver Ions in Controlling Legionella Pneumophila. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, June 2002, p. 2711-2715, Vol. 68, No. 6. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/full/68/6/2711/F3.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 The “Solubility Issue” In The Footbath An addition of 10 kgs. of Copper Sulphate in a 200 liter footbath could provide a maximum of ~10,600 ppm of active Copper ion. Average pH of hard water is 7.2. Copper Sulphate at 5% in hard water results in a pH of approx. 4.5. A pH of 4.5 would result in 66% (8,250 ppm), active Copper ion. Remaining 34% (4,250 ppm) of Copper remains insoluble and precipitates to the bottom of the footbath in an inactive form.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Result: Precipitated Copper = Excessive Copper in Environment
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Benefits of using Healthy Hooves ® : Consistent low pH, through a buffered system Maintains maximum solubility of CuSO 4 in footbath @ 85% Provides environment where bacteria cannot grow (bacteriostatic) Non-corrosive to skin tissue Compliance with anticipated environmental regulations on Copper use Saves YOU money
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Footbath Makeup Constant: Healthy Hooves ® Healthy Hooves ® is designed to be used at an economical 2% by volume in the footbath to maintain a buffered, predictable low pH. Variable: The dairy has the choice/control of the amount of Copper used in treatment based on herd condition. Advantage: Control over treatment Control over cost Control over environmental stewardship Eliminates the dangers of Formalin
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Control Over Treatment Healthy Hooves ® Healthy Hooves ® at 2% by volume, controls the pH in the footbath to maximise Copper solubility at 85%. The dairy can incrementally reduce the amount of CuSO 4 used in the footbath to find the optimum level of efficacy.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Sample Treatment Plan The treatment plan recommends reducing the Copper Sulphate incrementally while the hoof trimmers closely monitor the herd.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Calculation Assumptions: 200 litre footbaths 200 cows 2 footbaths a day, a minimum of 3 days a week, 312 treatments/year This is a maintenance program and outbreak treatment will require additional materials and footbath treatments. Switching from formalin and/or severe infestation will require additional treatments for a period of 3 – 12 weeks.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Cost & Use of Formalin: Formalin at 6% solution use for 200 cows 12 ltr./footbath times 1.4 charges/200 treatments ** 33.6 ltr./400 treatments/day =.084 ltr./treatment 5,241 litres of Formalin at 6% solution per year .084 ltr./treatment Formalin * £.95 /ltr. = £8.0 pence/treatment ** Studies show formalin is effective for 150 cows and will require a recharge every 150 treatments. Your results may vary based on your herd health and footbath maintenance procedures.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Cost & Use of CuSO 4 alone: CuSO 4 alone, 5% solution for use for 200 cows 10 kg./footbath /200 treatments ** 20 kg./400 treatments =.05 kg./treatment 3,120 kgs. of CuSO 4 per year Cost :.05 kg. CuSO 4 times £2.25/kg. = 11.12 pence/treatment ** Studies show CuSO 4 alone is effective for 200 cows and will require a recharge every 200 treatments. Your results may vary based on your herd health and footbath maintenance procedures.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Cost & Use of CuSO 4 and Healthy Hooves ® Healthy Hooves ® Healthy Hooves ® at 2% by volume for 200 cows 4 litres ** for 400 treatments Plus 4 kg. CuSO 4 Healthy Hooves ® 624 kgs. of CuSO 4 per year, 624 litres of Healthy Hooves ® Cost 4 kgs. CuSO 4 /400 treatments =.01 kgs./treatment.01 kgs. CuSO 4 times £2.25/kg. = 2.25 pence/treatment Healthy Hooves ® 4 litres Healthy Hooves ® /400 treatments =.01 litres/treatment.01 litres * £4.95 = 4.95 pence/treatment Total 4.95 pence + 2.25 pence = 7.2 pence/treatment ** Studies show CuSO 4 plus 2% Healthy Hooves solution will maintain Cu ++ efficacy for 400 “passes”. Your results may vary based on your herd health and footbath maintenance procedures.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Annual Usage and Cost/Treatment Kilograms per Year
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Control Over Costs Healthy Hooves ® By reducing the overhead of charging the footbath. A single charge of Healthy Hooves ® lasts twice as long as CuSO 4 alone and 2.8 times as long as Formalin. This reduces labor costs by reducing the number of footbath charges. By reducing materials cost by 35% over CuSO 4 alone and 10% less than formalin. By reducing or avoiding costs associated with regulations that dictate Copper disposal requirements.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Control Over Environmental Stewardship By reducing the amount of CuSO 4 impacting the environment by 80% or more.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Eliminate Formalin, Improve the Workplace and Reduce Health Hazards Eliminate the dangers of Formalin from the farm. Keep your workers safe and your herd healthy.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Healthy Hooves ® Puts the farmer in control by: Maintaining healthy dairy herds, through patented, innovative technology. Reducing overall use of CuSO 4 to comply with anticipated environmental regulations on Copper. Reducing cost per treatment. Aiding the farmer in being a good environmental steward. Eliminating the dangers of formalin.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Healthy Hooves ® product options Healthy Hooves ® Healthy Hooves ® is used with copper sulphate and the farmer controls concentration levels based on herd health. Healthy Hooves® RTU Healthy Hooves® Healthy Hooves® RTU where the farmer uses a pre-mix solution of Healthy Hooves® and copper sulphate. Healthy Hooves® Ultimate Healthy Hooves®, Healthy Hooves® Ultimate is a pre-mix solution of Healthy Hooves®, copper sulphate and zinc sulphate used for treating cattle or sheep.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Contact your stockist today… Healthy Hooves® Healthy Hooves® For walk through footbath used at 2% strength with an addition of Copper Sulphate at 2%. First 3 weeks add 4 Kgs of Copper Sulphate. Ongoing footbathing add 2 Kgs of Copper Sulphate unless Digital Dermatitis is present continue with 4 Kgs of Copper Sulphate. For optimum results footbath a minimum of 3 times per week. +
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Contact your stockist today… Healthy Hooves Ultimate™ Healthy Hooves Ultimate™ For walk through footbath used at 2% strength with an addition of Zinc Sulphate at 4% Healthy Hooves Ultimate™ For foot bathing sheep in an enclosed pen use Healthy Hooves Ultimate™ at 2% strength, with a addition of Zinc Sulphate at 4% for up to 30 minutes. +
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Contact your stockist today… Healthy Hooves RTU Healthy Hooves RTU ™ should be used at 2% by volume. A typical dilution is 4 Litres in a 200 Litre footbath with the following additions of Copper Sulphate. First 3 weeks add 4 Kgs of Copper Sulphate. Ongoing footbathing add 2 Kgs of Copper Sulphate unless Digital Dermatitis is present continue with 4 Kgs of Copper Sulphate. For optimum results footbath a minimum of 3 times per week.
® © pH Solutions, Inc. 2010 Contact your stockist today… Clover Animal Health Cheshire / Shrops / Staffs 08006 125 289 Coars Country Store Lancashire / South Yorkshire 01995 603 555 Delway Technical Services North Wales / Cheshire / Lancs 01516 393 201 Gethin Jones & Sons Carmarthenshire 01559 395 316 Healthy Hooves Scotland England North East / West Scotland 0776 727 7157 H&C Pearce & Sons Ltd Berks / Bucks / Dorset / Gloucs / Hamps / Oxon / Soms / Wilts 01844 212 034 H&C Pearce & Sons Ltd Leics / Northants / Notts / Warks 01858 432 704 Healthy Hooves South East Essex / Herts / Kent / Sussex 01206 869 383 Jack Surgeon Supplies Lanarkshire 07831 101 695 JRK Cambell Dumfries / Galloway 01848 330 419 DP Nutrition Ltd Devon / Somerset 01769 560 531 Helthy Hooves (LSW) South West Devon / Cornwall 01822 855 855 MG. Simister & Sons Ltd Derbys / Staffs 01335 324416 Michael Edwards Supplies South Pembrokeshire 07778 577 589 Pearson’s NI Northern Ireland 028 8774 8042 South Caernarfon Creameries North Wales 07787 102 043 Three Rivers Vet Group Norfolk / Suffolk 01502 712 169 Tim Gibson Ltd North East / North Yorkshire 01677 424 284 Westpoint Veterinary Group Ltd Essex / Herts / Kent / Sussex 01306 628 086 Shearwater
Long-acting Foot Bath. Digital Dermatitis Causes… 53.9% of lameness in cows 61.8% in bred heifers Is also known as… hairy-heel warts infectious.
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