Presentation on theme: "OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Ohio Pesticide Applicator Training Unit 3 Formulations."— Presentation transcript:
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Ohio Pesticide Applicator Training Unit 3 Formulations
2 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION What is a Formulation? All the Ingredients in a pesticide product The active ingredients or control chemical The inert (inactive) ingredients Usually formulations are diluted in water, a petroleum-based solvent, or other diluents.
3 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Types of Formulations Liquids
4 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC or E) ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Easy to handle, transport, and store. Little agitation required. Non abrasive. Do not plug screens or nozzles. Little visible residue High concentration. Easily absorbed through skin. Solvents may cause surfaces to deteriorate. Flammable. May be corrosive
5 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Solutions (S) Dissolve readily in a liquid solvent. When mixed, forms a solution that will not settle out or separate. Formulations of these pesticides usually contain the active ingredient, the solvent, and one or more other ingredients.
6 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Ready to Use (RTU) Pre-mixed pesticide products. Contain active ingredient and correct amount of solvent. No further dilution is required. Often 1% or less of active ingredient.
7 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Concentrate Solutions (C or CL) Must be further diluted. Mix readily, no agitation required. Limited number of formulations.
8 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Ultra-Low-Volume (ULV) ADVANTAGES Relatively easy to handle, transport, and store. Little agitation required. No plugging of screens and nozzles. Not abrasive to equipment. DISADVANTAGES High drift hazard Specialized equipment required. Easily absorbed through skin. Solvents can deteriorate equipment parts.
9 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Flowables (F or L) Insoluble solids mixed with water and other inert ingredients to form a suspension. Easy to handle and apply. Require moderate agitation. May leave a visible residue.
10 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Aerosols (A) ADVANTAGES Ready to use. Easily stored. Convenient Retain potency DISADVANTAGES Practical for very limited uses. Risk of inhalation injury. Hazardous if punctured, overheated, or used near open flame. Difficult to confine to target site or pest.
11 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Invert Emulsions Water soluble pesticide with an oil based carrier. Form large droplets that do not drift easily. Commonly used in vegetation control along rights of way.
12 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Types of Formulations Dry
13 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Dusts (D) ADVANTAGES No mixing, ready to use. Requires simple equipment Effective in hard-to – reach indoor areas. Good choice where moisture from a spray would cause damage. DISADVANTAGES Easily drift off target Does not stick to surfaces. May irritate eyes, nose, throat and skin. Difficult to get even distribution of material
14 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Baits (B) ADVANTAGES Ready to use. DISADVANTAGES Selective site application Control pests that move in and out of an area. Can be attractive to children. May kill non-target animals. Dead pests may cause odor problem.
15 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Granules (G) ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Ready to use, no mixing. Low drift hazard. Little hazard to applicator. Simple application equipment. Slow- release Does not stick on foliage May need to be incorporated into soil. May need moisture to activate. Hazardous to non-target species.
16 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Pellets (P or PS) Similar to granular formulations All the particles are the same shape and size.
17 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Wettable Powders (WP or W) ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Easy to store, handle, and transport. Less likely than EC’s and others to cause harm to treated target. Easily measured and mixed. Less skin and eye absorption than EC’s and other liquids. Inhalation hazard to applicator while pouring and mixing the concentrated powder. Requires constant agitation in spray tank. Abrasive to many pumps and nozzles./ clogs nozzles. Residues may be visible.
18 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Soluble Powders (SP or WSP) Look like Wettable powders. Dissolve readily and form a true solution. Inhalation hazard. Few pesticides available in this form.
19 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Microencapsulated Pesticides (M) ADVANTAGES Increased safety to applicator. Easy to mix, handle, and apply. Releases pesticide over a period of time. DISADVANTAGES Constant agitation necessary in tank. Special honey bee risk.
20 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Water-Dispersible Granules (Dry Flowables) (WDG or DF) Similar to wettable powders. More easily measured and mixed. Less inhalation hazard during pouring and mixing.
21 OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Fumigants ADVANTAGES Toxic to a wide range of pests. Can penetrate tight areas. Single treatment will usually kill most pests. DISADVANTAGES Target site MUST be enclosed to prevent gas from escaping. Highly toxic to all living organisms. Requires specialized protective and application equipment.