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The Cold War Begins Chapter 13.

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1 The Cold War Begins Chapter 13

2 Essays – Chapter 13 In what ways did tensions between the US and the USSR shape US foreign policy and American society from to 1960? What effects did the Cold War have on other nations? Explain the Truman Doctrine and the policy of CONTAINMENT. Describe 2 specific examples of this doctrine in use during the Cold War. What was the Red Scare of the 1950’s? How did McCarthy and Truman’s Loyalty Review Program increase the fears of the day?

3 Building a New World FDR had wanted to make sure the world would never go to a world war again He believed an international organization designed to give nations a place to discuss their issued rather than fight was needed CREATING THE UNITED NATIONS General Assembly – all member nations would have 1 vote Security Council – 11 members, 5 permanent (US, GB, USSR, Fr, China) Each permanent member could VETO any resolution The were responsible for international peace and security It could ask member nations to use their militaries to uphold a UN resolution April 25, 1945 – 50 countries met in San Francisco to design its charter

4 The Yalta Conference Feb 1945 – FDR, Churchill & Stalin met in Russia to plan the postwar Europe they hoped to create POLAND – 2 set of leaders (democratic & communist) claimed to be the leaders of Poland. USSR wanted some level of control because every attack on Russia had come thru Poland. They wanted to be able to use Poland as a BUFFER. FDR/Churchill agreed to allow communist control if they included leaders from the democratic group as part of the government and free elections in the future

5 Declaration of Liberated Europe
“The right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live” Allied countries would occupy (run the country) until the nation could reorganize and set up a free election for governments that would be responsive to the will of the people DIVIDED GERMANY 4 powers agreed to divide Germany USSR demanded war reparations US/GB removed war materials from Germany as their “reparations”

Shortly after Yalta, the USSR began installing communist governments in countries they controlled, breaking the agreement for self- determination and free elections The US/USSR became increasingly hostile towards one another SOVIET CONCERNS Security – wanted to control countries between Germany and Russia Spread communism – a superior economic system in their viewpoint US ECONOMIC ISSUES US believed depression forced countries towards war – to get resources FDR/Truman believed economic growth was the key to peace Free enterprise, private property rights, limited govt key to growth too

7 Soviet Union create SATELLITE countries
* Communist controlled * National leader who followed directions from USSR * Created a BUFFER between USSR and Western Europe

8 Truman takes Control Truman strongly anti-communist Believed WW2 happened because England appeased Hitler and he was NOT going to make that mistake with Stalin POTSDAMS CONFERENCE (July 45 – just before Hiroshima) Truman and Stalin meet in Potsdam (outside Berlin) Soviets believed Germany must pay reparations, had begun stripping Germany of any usable goods and shipping back to USSR Truman convinced Germany was key to building Europe back up. He proposed Allied side be allowed to rebuild while Soviets could take reparations from their side of Germany Truman also agreed to Polish border to get Stalin to agree Truman hinted at a new weapon the US had, hoping to scare the Soviets. Stalin believed the US was trying to bully them, but agreed to terms

9 The IRON CURTAIN Descends
Soviets refused to make a strong commitment to free elections Soviets controlled Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Czech These nations became known as “SATELLITE NATIONS” Not under direct control, had to follow Soviet policies to receive aid Winston Churchill will give a speech saying “an iron curtain has descended across the continent” The IRON CURTAIN became the dividing line between the WEST (democratic western Europe) and the EAST (communist controlled eastern Europe)

10 Containing Communism Many hoped the US/USSR could coexist after WW2
After great frustration with the Soviet’s refusal to cooperate on just about anything, the US adopts a policy of CONTAINMENT The US would use diplomacy, economic sanctions and, if necessary, military to keep communism from expanding any further It was believed, that if contained, communism would eventually collapse – allowing the US to defeat communism without war CRISIS IN IRAN During WW2, the US/USSR occupied Iran (access to middle eastern oil) After WW2, the Soviets refused to leave, placing troops in N. Iran to secure oil US demanded they leave (sent a war ship to the region to reinforce demand) Soviets eventually agreed to leave

11 Truman Doctrine USSR turned to Turkey after losing out in Iran (access to Med. Sea) Truman advised to show Stalin a sign of force, more ships moved to region At the same time, GB was trying to help Greece withstand a guerilla war by communists. GB told US it could no longer afford to help. Truman makes a major policy announcement in response The new US policy (The Truman Doctrine) The US would provide aid to any country resisting being controlled by outside influences (communism) Tactically, this meant the US would fight the spread of communism worldwide. All a country had to do was ask for help

12 Truman Doctrine – new direction

13 Marshall Plan Post war Europe was in ruins
Economies in shambles, infrastructure broken, people starving Secretary of State George Marshall proposed new plan that would provide aid to European nations to rebuild their countries To receive aid – each nation was to create an economic rebuilding plan (how much was needed, now that money would be spent) To receive aid – each country had to promise free, open elections Most European nations take the aid It was also offered to the Soviet Union, but rejected The Point Four Program was added later to promote the scientific and industrial progress

14 Soviets counter Marshall Plan


16 Berlin Airlift US believed Europe’s future was dependent on
Germany’s economy rebuilding, but they believed that the USSR was trying to undermine that economy. The USSR still wanted Germany to pay reparations far larger than they were required to ** In response, the US, GB and France merged their zones and allowed the Germans to elect their own government (W.Germany) They were mostly independent, but not allowed a military *** the meant the USSR would never get their reparations ** The other side of Germany (E.Germany) was controlled by the USSR and Berlin was within that zone ** Berlin was divided between East and West as well

17 Berlin Airlift The USSR will blockade West Berlin, so no supplies could get thru USSR hoped the US would change its policies or abandon W. Berlin Truman did not want war with USSR, so he ordered airlifts to take supplies to the city For 11 months, US/GB will airlift more than 2 million tons of food, water and supplies to the people of W. Berlin


19 Logistics of the Berlin Airlift


21 Creation of NATO NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Berlin Airlift convinced many that the USSR was planning on expanding communism and taking over other nations April 1949 – a mutual defense alliance was created 12 nations to start – US, GB, France, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, Canada, the Netherlands, Norway, Luxembourg, and Iceland If any nation was attacked, member nations would come to their aid US, for the 1st time, committed to helping maintain peace in Europe USSR was VERY concerned, countered with the Warsaw Pact

22 Asia after the WW2 The Chinese Resolution
Before/during the war, a rebel named Mao Zedong (communist) led the chinese people in rebellion against their leader (Chiang Kai-shek) and then against Japanese occupation After WW2, civil war broke out, US sent $2B to back Chiang (to prevent communism from taking control 1949, Mao won control, Chiang and follows fled to Taiwan to set up a “free” China US formally recognized Chiang/Taiwan and refused to recognize or deal with Mao’s China US used its VETO power in the United Nations to block China/Mao from gaining membership

23 New Policies in Japan General Douglas MacArthur brought in to oversee the occupation of Japan Key Objectives: Bring Democracy to Japan Keep Japan from ever threatening war again Build Japan’s economy up to be the strength of Asia (after loss of China) *** MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito will meet to work out new future for Japan ++ this was viewed by the Japanese people as quite remarkable because “normal people” didn’t ever meet with the emperor

24 Essays – Ch 13 In what ways did tensions between the US and the USSR shape US foreign policy and American society from to 1960? What effects did the Cold War have on other nations? Explain the Truman Doctrine and the policy of CONTAINMENT. Describe 2 specific examples of this doctrine in use during the Cold War. What was the Red Scare of the 1950’s? How did McCarthy and Truman’s Loyalty Review Program increase the fears of the day?

25 The Korean War After WW2, both US and USSR troops moved into Korea to disarm Japanese troops stationed there US controlled the south (set up a democratic government) USSR controlled the north (set up a communist government) Talks to reunify Korea broke down Both North Korea and South Korea claimed to be the legitimate government for Korea USSR armed North Korea and trained their military Soon the North Korean Army invaded the south, driving back the badly equipped South Korean Army

26 The Korean War Truman saw Korea as a test of his “CONTAINMENT” policy
Truman ordered US Army/Navy into Korea Truman went to the United Nations to and demanded they act to stop the aggression of North Korea/USSR UN did act (USSR was boycotting UN due to China policy) UN sent troops – US sent General Douglas MacArthur in to lead the charge

27 Korean War US/UN troops only hold the very south part of Korea
MacArthur plans/executes a daring invasion up the peninsula Cut off supplies to North Korean troops further south North Korean troops in full retreat 38th Parallel was border between North/South Korea, but McArthur pushed past the border with the intent of driving the communists out of Korea, once and for all As MacArthur neared China, he was ordered to stop by President Truman – order was ignored China enters war to protect themselves and their communist allies MacArthur wanted to expand war with China – was refused again MacArthur pushed ahead – was FIRED by Truman

28 Korean War Armistice Ends Fighting – UN will get sides together to try to negotiate an end to the war Negotiations go on and on with little progress Dwight Eisenhower will be elected President in 1952 “Ike” was determined to end the war, hinted to China that the US might use nuclear bombs to end war if needed Threat seemed to work, China agreed to an armistice 38th Parallel would become the DMZ (demilitarized zone) US troops would stay to help defend the border No official peace treaty ever signed between North and South Korea

29 Change in Policy Korean War marked a change BEFORE 1950 AFTER 1950
Preferred to use political pressure and economic pressure to contain communism Focused on Europe as the key region of concern AFTER 1950 Major military buildup as the US realized the Cold War would be world wide Asia became the next battle ground (China & North Korea) Signed defense agreements with Japan, South Korea and Taiwan SEATO (South East Asia Treaty Organization) US aided French in French Indochina (VIETNAM)

30 The New RED SCARE Fears about communist infiltration within the US rise A defector in Canada gave up documents that showed that the USSR was trying to infiltrate government agencies, specifically trying to get atomic bomb information The idea of Soviet spies in the US government SCARED people in the US Truman Loyalty Review Program – screened all federal employees Action confirmed people’s fears of possible spies in government FBI looked deeper into the lives of 14,000+ 2,000 quit their jobs (many under pressure/threat) 212 were fired for “questionable loyalty” despite a lack of evidence

31 HUAC and anti-communist investigations
The Senate started investigating the potential of communist infiltration with HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee) Hollywood on Trial HUAC (led by Senator McCarthy) targeted the media (FILM) It was suspected they used their movies to push communist ideas “Hollywood Ten” – pled the 5th and were convicted of contempt and many others were “blacklisted” Alger Hiss – high level official convicted of lying under oath The Rosenbergs – convicted, condemned to death for espionage Denied until their execution – later records show Julius was a spy, but no proof Ethyl was Project Verona – cracked USSR code – proved USSR was syping, heavily, on the US and was working to get our nuclear secrets Truman fought efforts of some to use government to hunt down people who believed communism was good

32 RED SCARE spreads Across the US, efforts to root out communists spread
Businesses, churches, unions required members to take loyalty oaths When China fell to communism and USSR tested a nuclear bomb, many feared the US was losing the Cold War McCARTHYISM An unknown senator claimed to have a list of 205 members of the communist party working in the government/state department McCarthy got BIG publicity and would continue to make charges Sec of State accused of being an “instrument of Stalin” Congress passed the McCarron Act (Internal Security Act) which made it illegal to establish a totalitarian government in the US and required all communist-related groups to publish their records and register with the government (Truman vetoed but was overridden)

33 McCarthy’s fall McCarthy reached his most powerful when he was picked to head a committee to investigate communism in government Hearings became witch-hunts, bullying people into confessing or naming others who might have communist leanings – people became fearful to even challenge McCarthy (nixon) McCarthy even accused the military of disloyalty When McCarthy went after a young aid, a general FINALLY stood up to McCarthy, asking in front of the cameras “Have you no decency?” to cheers Edward R. Murrow, a well respected newsman, put his reputation on the line when he did an expose on McCarthy, pointing out the tactics and meanness of McCarthy’s hearings Congress will “censure” McCarthy, he will lose all his power.

34 Life During the Cold War
Fears of communism and nuclear bombs dominate the 1950’s Facing THE BOMB – USSR tests a hydrogen bomb in 1953 U.S. cities/people begin to prepare for a surprise attack Schools have “duck and cover” drills Fallout Shelters open in most cities/town Popular Culture – TV, movies, radio, books, magazines, music Spies, nuclear war popular topics 1950’s also a time of prosperity and optimism – a time of contrasts As 1952 election came – the American people were looking for someone who could promise them security (after Depression and war)

35 Eisenhower’s Cold War Policies
With the USSR’s nuclear test, many viewed Truman’s policies as not working (USSR still a big threat) Truman decided not to run again Democrats nominate Adlai Stevenson Republicans nominate General Dwight D. Eisenhower (national hero) Eisenhower won in a landslide Massive Retaliation Strong military and strong economy were Eisenhower’s aims Economic prosperity would be seen as a better alternative to communism Believed a huge military, ready for attack, would be too expensive to maintain. Atomic bombs were “more bang for the buck” Korean war convinced Eisenhower we could not contain communism with a series of small battles. The threat of massive retaliation would prevent spread of communism more that the threat of little wars Eisenhower was able to cut military spending from $50B to $34B while increasing the number of nuclear bombs from 1,000 to 18,000

36 Brinksmanship The willingness to go to the “brink” of war to force the other side to back down Several crises in this era showed Eisenhower was willing to use this strategy to advance US interests TAIWAN CRISIS – China threatened to retake Taiwan. Eisenhower vowed to defend, with nuclear power if necessary. China backed down THE SUEZ CRISIS – To stop middle east countries from aligning with USSR, US made deal to help Egypt build a dam on the Nile. When US found out Egypt had bought weapons from Communist Czechoslovakia, it pulled out of the deal. Egypt seized the Suez canal. GB and Fr invaded Egypt (against US wishes). USSR offered to help Egypt, US threatened war (nuclear if necessary). GB and Fr called off invasion – USSR won this one

37 Covert Operations CIA began running COVERT operations
Many of these occurred in developing nations – infiltrated BEFORE communism could take hold IRAN AND GUATAMALA IRAN - When Iran nationalized oil fields, CIA organized protests and helped overthrow government, placing pro-American Shah in control GUATEMALA – 1950 – Communist elected leader and land policies took land from American investors – Guatemala bought weapons from Communist Czechoslovakia. The CIA began arming the opposition and training them to overthrow the government. CIA trained rebel leaders attacks and drove elected communist leader from country

38 Trouble in Eastern Europe
Stalin died in 1954 – replaced by Nikita Khrushchev (a reformer) In secret speech, Khrushchev attacked Stalin’s rule CIA got transcript of the speech and sent it to E.Europe countries E.Europe countries were not happy with communist rule, and this speech fueled resentment and resistance Riots erupts across the satellite countries Khrushchev was willing to grant some freedoms in E.Europe, but not rebellion Soviet tanks roll into Hungary and crushed the rebellion Other nations back down to Soviet threats

39 The Eisenhower Doctrine
Other nations using COVERT methods to advance their goals Nasser of Egypt began working in neighboring Syria and Jordan to push “PAN-ARAB” idea – Arab people should unite into one nation Eisenhower worried about Nasser’s connections with USSR Got Congress to authorize use of force to protect the Middle Eastern nations from communist aggression – basically the Truman Doctrine (containment) applied to the Middle East 1958 – Iraq – Rebels (backed by Nassar and USSR) seized Iraq Lebanon asked for US help – 5,000 marines sent to Lebanon until things calmed down

40 U-2 incident – Spy Plane shot down
Khrushchev believed in “peaceful coexistence” but accused the West of starting an “ARMS RACE” 1957 SPUTNIK – “We will bury capitalism” Khrushchev 1958 Khrushchev demanded withdrawal from West Berlin NATO threatens to respond to and Soviet moves in West Berlin 1960 – Summit called between Eisenhower and Khrushchev Just before meeting, a spy place was shot down over Russia (U-2)

41 U-2 Spy Plane Khrushchev accused US of spying, Eisenhower claimed it was a weather plane, pilot produced Eisenhower refused to apologize – summit cancelled Pilot captured (Francis Gary Powers) and tried as a spy When Eisenhower left office, he warned of a “Military Industrial Complex” that sought to maintain tensions (for profits) “I confess I lay down my official responsibilities in this field with a definite sense of disappointment. As one who has witnessed the horror and the lingering sadness of war, I wish I could say tonight that a lasting peace was in sight: Eisenhower

42 Essays – Ch 13 In what ways did tensions between the US and the USSR shape US foreign policy and American society from to 1960? What effects did the Cold War have on other nations? Explain the Truman Doctrine and the policy of CONTAINMENT. Describe 2 specific examples of this doctrine in use during the Cold War. What was the Red Scare of the 1950’s? How did McCarthy and Truman’s Loyalty Review Program increase the fears of the day?

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