4Historiography: The study of how historians study history. The history of history.Case in point:Two documents: Columbus & de las Casas
5Document A: What is Columbus’ impression of the Native Americans? Utilizing the Native Labor Force, Christopher Columbus, 1492Sunday, 14th of October...these people are very simple as regards the use of arms, as your Highnesses will see from the seven that I caused to be taken, to bring home and learn our language and return; unless your Highnesses should order them all to be brought to Castile, or to be kept as captives on the same island; for with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to do what is required of them....Sunday, 16th of December...your Highnesses may believe that this island (Hispaniola), and all the others, are as much yours as Castile. Here there is only wanting a settlement and the order to the people to do what is required. For I, with the force I have under me, which is not large, could march over all these islands without opposition. I have seen only three sailors land, without wishing to do harm, and a multitude of Indians fled before them. They have no arms, and are without warlike instincts; they all go naked, and are so timid that a thousand would not stand before three of our men. So that they are good to be ordered about, to work and sow, and do all that may be necessary, and to build towns, and they should be taught to go about clothed and to adopt our customs."Journal of the First Voyage of Christopher Columbus, ," in E.G. Bourne, The Northmen, Columbus and Cabot, (New York, 1906), 114, , 182
6Document B: What is de las Casas impression of discovery Document B: What is de las Casas impression of discovery? How does it differ from Columbus’? Why might it differ?The Black Legend, Bartolomé de las Casas, 1542New Spain [Mexico] was discovered in 1517 and, at the time, great atrocities were committed against the indigenous people of the region and some were killed by members of the expedition. In 1518 the so-called Christians set about stealing from the people and murdering them on the pretence of settling the area. And from that year until this--and it is now the great iniquities and injustices, the outrageous acts of violence and the bloody tyranny of these Christians have steadily escalated, the perpetrators having lost all fear of God, all love of their sovereign, and all sense of self-respect. Even now, in September 1542, the atrocities get worse by the day, it being the case, as we have said, that the infernal brutality and utter inhumanity of the acts committed have readily increased as time has gone on.
7Historiography: The study of how historians study history. The history of history.Case in point:Textbook review…Kyle Ward: History in the Making
8Kyle Ward on ColumbusRead each excerpt and evaluate tone, attitude, language, opinion and use of words? Mark it up!What patterns emerge as you read?How does the time period in which the document was written influence what was said about Columbus?What might be the problems with analyzing the importance of Columbus? Of history?
10The World According to a Computer Person… ha ha ha…this is a joke…
11The Age of Exploration Advancing Sailing Technologies Europeans gained much of their nautical knowledge from Arabs, like:PortolaniNautical maps of coastlines, distancesDrawn on flat scale, no help overseasCompassShowed bearing of ship’s courseAstrolabeUsed the sun or a star to find latitudeLateen SailsTriangular sails allow for increased maneuverabilityCaravelsManeuverable ships that could hold heavy cannon & large cargoAll combined to allow for greater sailing accuracy over greater distances
12Motives… Forces Behind European Exploration God (Religious Motivations)Missionaries: spread word of ChristMany other religions seen as “savage”Increase power of Catholic ChurchGlory (Personal Motivations)Spirit of adventure, natural curiosity (Marco Polo)Individual claim to fame (fortune?)Power of Kings and Queens, empireGold (Economic Motivations)European interests in Asia…new / quicker trade routesSpices, silk, tea, porcelain = $$$Rise of Ottomans restricted Silk RoadCould eliminate “middle man” by seaHope of discovering precious metalsEconomic theory of MercantilismEmerging notion Euro. supremacyEffects of Renaissance on Exploration?
13Marco PoloTraveled to China [court of Kublai Khan] and brought back stories and goods to Europe
14Vasco da GamaDiscovered an all-water route from Europe to India
15Christopher ColumbusAccidentally found America while looking for a westward route to AsiaHis voyages considered a turning point in history
16Ferdinand MagellanFirst person credited with circumnavigating the world
17Hernando CortesConquered the Aztec Empire in Mexico in 1519
18Francisco PizarroConquered the Inca Empire in Peru in 1833
19List positive & negative effects of the Age of Exploration
20Effects: Negative or Positive? European powers built extensive overseas empiresEconomic self-sufficiency lostDestroyed traditional patterns of tradeLarge numbers of Europeans moved to AmericasPeople with common backgrounds separatedCash crop overemphasizedNative American crops (corn, potato, tomato) brought to EuropeCapitalism expanded with growth of tradePromoted racismCultural exchanges occurred; ideas shared[cultural diffusion]Natural resources exploitedMiddle class growsNative American civilizations severely damaged by diseasesDemand for African slaves increasedEconomic growth leads to improved living standards for some
22Effects upon the Atlantic World Native American population90% die of diseases in first 100 yrs.Small pox, typhus, measles…Estimates differ. Most agree 3-10 million (Berkin 24)African populationSlave Coast9.5 million enslaved arrive in “New World” over 300 yrs.10-20 die in Middle Passage (Berkin 27)European populationPopulation growthMiddle class grows vs. absolute monarchsBirth of Protestant ReformationChallenges divine right
24Effects felt upon Africa Encouraged African warfaretribes went to war with other tribes to obtain slaves to trade for gunsDisrupted African cultureit created a legacy of violence, bitterness and social upheavalIncreased cultural diffusionSlaves brought their songs and culture to New WorldPrejudice against Africans
28Other Related Effects upon the Atlantic World: The Columbian Exchange
29Other Related Effects upon the Atlantic World The Theory of MercantilismEconomic principles of the 1600s focused around a nation’s prosperityRise of centralized nation-statesMeasured by supply of gold & silverGained thru favorable balance of tradeExport more than you importPolicies of European RulersDiscourage import of foreign goodshigh taxes on imports (tariffs)Encourage export of manufacturesProtect favorable trading monopoliesAccept pay in goldEstablish & Protect ColoniesSource of raw materials, gold, & silverEffects of MercantilismEuropean abuses in Americas, AfricaNational rivalries based on trade, war
30Other Related Effects upon the World: Imperialism Domination by one country over the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
34Causes of Imperialism Economic Social Political Need for raw materials created by Industrial RevolutionDesire for place to invest excess capitalDrive to spread Christianity [White Man’s Burden]Rule by strongest and fittest- need to spread superior culture [Social Darwinism]Desire for great power statusCompetitive drive to gain control of an area (for military) before a rival could do so
35Positive Effects of Imperialism Built roads, railroads, and bridgesEducation improvedImproved medical careFood supply increasedBrought stability and unification to some areasCreated industries, improved standard of living