Presentation on theme: "Assess the validity of this statement.. The Age of Exploration 1400s to 1700s."— Presentation transcript:
Assess the validity of this statement.
The Age of Exploration 1400s to 1700s
Should we continue to celebrate Columbus Day?
The study of how historians study history. The history of history. Case in point: Two documents: Columbus & de las Casas
Document A: What is Columbus’ impression of the Native Americans? Utilizing the Native Labor Force, Christopher Columbus, 1492 Sunday, 14th of October...these people are very simple as regards the use of arms, as your Highnesses will see from the seven that I caused to be taken, to bring home and learn our language and return; unless your Highnesses should order them all to be brought to Castile, or to be kept as captives on the same island; for with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to do what is required of them.... Sunday, 16th of December...your Highnesses may believe that this island (Hispaniola), and all the others, are as much yours as Castile. Here there is only wanting a settlement and the order to the people to do what is required. For I, with the force I have under me, which is not large, could march over all these islands without opposition. I have seen only three sailors land, without wishing to do harm, and a multitude of Indians fled before them. They have no arms, and are without warlike instincts; they all go naked, and are so timid that a thousand would not stand before three of our men. So that they are good to be ordered about, to work and sow, and do all that may be necessary, and to build towns, and they should be taught to go about clothed and to adopt our customs. "Journal of the First Voyage of Christopher Columbus, ," in E.G. Bourne, The Northmen, Columbus and Cabot, (New York, 1906), 114, , 182
Document B: What is de las Casas impression of discovery? How does it differ from Columbus’? Why might it differ? The Black Legend, Bartolomé de las Casas, 1542 New Spain [Mexico] was discovered in 1517 and, at the time, great atrocities were committed against the indigenous people of the region and some were killed by members of the expedition. In 1518 the so- called Christians set about stealing from the people and murdering them on the pretence of settling the area. And from that year until this--and it is now the great iniquities and injustices, the outrageous acts of violence and the bloody tyranny of these Christians have steadily escalated, the perpetrators having lost all fear of God, all love of their sovereign, and all sense of self-respect. Even now, in September 1542, the atrocities get worse by the day, it being the case, as we have said, that the infernal brutality and utter inhumanity of the acts committed have readily increased as time has gone on.
The study of how historians study history. The history of history. Case in point: Textbook review…Kyle Ward: History in the Making
Kyle Ward on Columbus Read each excerpt and evaluate tone, attitude, language, opinion and use of words? Mark it up! What patterns emerge as you read? How does the time period in which the document was written influence what was said about Columbus? What might be the problems with analyzing the importance of Columbus? Of history?
Age of Exploration 1400s to 1700s
The World According to a Computer Person… ha ha ha…this is a joke…
The Age of Exploration Advancing Sailing Technologies Europeans gained much of their nautical knowledge from Arabs, like: Portolani Nautical maps of coastlines, distances Drawn on flat scale, no help overseas Compass Showed bearing of ship’s course Astrolabe Used the sun or a star to find latitude Lateen Sails Triangular sails allow for increased maneuverability Caravels Maneuverable ships that could hold heavy cannon & large cargo All combined to allow for greater sailing accuracy over greater distances
Motives… Forces Behind European Exploration God (Religious Motivations) Missionaries: spread word of Christ Many other religions seen as “savage” Increase power of Catholic Church Glory (Personal Motivations) Spirit of adventure, natural curiosity (Marco Polo) Individual claim to fame (fortune?) Power of Kings and Queens, empire Gold (Economic Motivations) European interests in Asia…new / quicker trade routes Spices, silk, tea, porcelain = $$$ Rise of Ottomans restricted Silk Road Could eliminate “middle man” by sea Hope of discovering precious metals Economic theory of Mercantilism Emerging notion Euro. supremacy Effects of Renaissance on Exploration?
Marco Polo Traveled to China [court of Kublai Khan] and brought back stories and goods to Europe
Vasco da Gama Discovered an all- water route from Europe to India
Christopher Columbus Accidentally found America while looking for a westward route to Asia His voyages considered a turning point in history
Ferdinand Magellan First person credited with circumnavigating the world
Hernando Cortes Conquered the Aztec Empire in Mexico in 1519
Francisco Pizarro Conquered the Inca Empire in Peru in 1833
List positive & negative effects of the Age of Exploration Positive Negative
Effects: Negative or Positive? European powers built extensive overseas empires Economic self-sufficiency lost Destroyed traditional patterns of trade Large numbers of Europeans moved to Americas People with common backgrounds separated Cash crop overemphasized Native American crops (corn, potato, tomato) brought to Europe Capitalism expanded with growth of trade Promoted racism Cultural exchanges occurred; ideas shared[cultural diffusion] Natural resources exploited Middle class grows Native American civilizations severely damaged by diseases Demand for African slaves increased Economic growth leads to improved living standards for some
Effects upon the Atlantic World Native American population 90% die of diseases in first 100 yrs. Small pox, typhus, measles… Estimates differ. Most agree 3-10 million (Berkin 24) African population Slave Coast 9.5 million enslaved arrive in “New World” over 300 yrs die in Middle Passage (Berkin 27) European population Population growth Middle class grows vs. absolute monarchs Birth of Protestant Reformation Challenges divine right
Effects felt upon Africa Encouraged African warfare tribes went to war with other tribes to obtain slaves to trade for guns Disrupted African culture it created a legacy of violence, bitterness and social upheaval Increased cultural diffusion Slaves brought their songs and culture to New World Prejudice against Africans
Other Related Effects upon the Atlantic World: The Columbian Exchange
Other Related Effects upon the Atlantic World The Theory of Mercantilism Economic principles of the 1600s focused around a nation’s prosperity Rise of centralized nation-states Measured by supply of gold & silver Gained thru favorable balance of trade Export more than you import Policies of European Rulers Discourage import of foreign goods high taxes on imports (tariffs) Encourage export of manufactures Protect favorable trading monopolies Accept pay in gold Establish & Protect Colonies Source of raw materials, gold, & silver Effects of Mercantilism European abuses in Americas, Africa National rivalries based on trade, war
Other Related Effects upon the World:Imperialism Domination by one country over the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
Causes of Imperialism EconomicSocialPolitical Need for raw materials created by Industrial Revolution Desire for place to invest excess capital Drive to spread Christianity [White Man’s Burden] Rule by strongest and fittest- need to spread superior culture [Social Darwinism] Desire for great power status Competitive drive to gain control of an area (for military) before a rival could do so
Positive Effects of Imperialism Built roads, railroads, and bridges Education improved Improved medical care Food supply increased Brought stability and unification to some areas Created industries, improved standard of living