Presentation on theme: "Events to Exploration Middle Ages (Dark Ages) ► Began when Roman Empire fell (350 C.E.) & tribes overran Europe. ► Characteristics = much warfare, no learning,"— Presentation transcript:
Events to Exploration Middle Ages (Dark Ages) ► Began when Roman Empire fell (350 C.E.) & tribes overran Europe. ► Characteristics = much warfare, no learning, little trade, disease (plague) and towns lost population. ► Most towns are centered around a castle or a manor.
Life on the Manor Feudalism & manoralism = System of rule in which lords owe loyalty and military service to a king. Serfs work the land and in return are protected by the Lords. Serfs are bound to the soil. The manor was run by a lord and the land was worked by serfs. Serfs= people who were “bound to the soil” and could not leave (Not Slaves). Manors are self-sufficient= Make what is needed to survive.
Life on the Manor Catholic Church is the only organized religion and influenced every part of life. Catholic Church is led by the Bishop of Rome (Pope).
Crusades (1100-1300 C.E.) Crusades were religious wars waged by Christians to regain Jerusalem (Holy Land) in the Middle East from the Muslims. Crusaders bring back spices, silks, gems, & perfume and other exotic items.
Results of Crusades People in Europe have a great demand for these new items and soon trade develops between Europe and the East. ► Cities Develop. ► Merchant Class arises. ► Feudalism ends in Europe.
Renaissance (Rebirth of Learning) – (1300-1600 C.E.) Why started: Increased trade and travel brought Europeans into contact with many advanced cultures. Important Inventions: Caravel (Small, light, sailing Ship design) Printing Press (Gutenberg: Books are available to all) Astrolabe & Magnetic Compass (Navigation)
Reformation-1517 During this time most Europeans belong to the Catholic Church. Martin Luther: Wanted to reform the Catholic Church because the Pope was allowing indulgences. Indulgences: payment for forgiveness of sins. Luther’s demands were rejected and the Protestant Reformation began. Many new Protestant Churches emerged and a series of wars broke out between Catholics and Protestants.
Exploration By 1400, many European countries want to increase their wealth and break the monopoly that Italy has with the East (trade with China, India, and the Middle East). To do this, a new trade route must be found that bypasses the Mediterranean Sea. Monopoly: Complete control by a group or individual.
Explorations of Portugal Prince Henry “The Navigator” of Portugal sets up an informal school to teach explores seamanship. Vasco Da Gama is the first to sail around Africa to India. Portugal establishes very profitable trade (slaves & gold) with East & West African states.
Voyages of Columbus In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, jealous of the Portuguese, sponsor an Italian sea Captain to find another route East. Christopher Columbus’s idea was to reach the east by sailing west.
Voyages of Columbus In August 1492, Columbus set sail with 3 ships. For 3 months, Columbus and 90 other men endure extreme hardship and fear of being lost at sea. IN October 1492, Columbus finally sites land. The crew lands at San Salvador, a small island in the Caribbean. (NOT THE EAST INDIES).
Columbus Hero or Villain? Hero: A. Brought news of the New World to Europe. B. Africa, Europe, and Americas come into contact. C. Started aggressive exploration. D. Exchange of goods, foods, and ideas (Columbian Exchange).
Columbus Hero or Villain? Villain: A. Native Americans forced to be slaves. B. Poor Governor. C. Brings over European diseases. D. Native Americans lose their land.
Columbian Exchange ► Exchange of goods and ideas that transformed the world (people, plants & diseases).
Explorers that followed Columbus ►A►A►A►Amerigo Vispucci – first to realize that Columbus found two new continents. ►F►F►F►Ferdinand Magellan – first to circumnavigate the globe. ►J►J►J►John Cabot – first European to discover North America. ►V►V►V►Vasco de Balboa – first European to site the Pacific Ocean.