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Cold War A conflict that is not “hot” (no actual war) A conflict that is not “hot” (no actual war) Just doing things to hurt your enemy without actually.

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Presentation on theme: "Cold War A conflict that is not “hot” (no actual war) A conflict that is not “hot” (no actual war) Just doing things to hurt your enemy without actually."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Cold War A conflict that is not “hot” (no actual war) A conflict that is not “hot” (no actual war) Just doing things to hurt your enemy without actually going to war Just doing things to hurt your enemy without actually going to war The Reason – The Reason – Mutually Mutually Assured Assured Destruction Destruction

3 Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) Defense Secretary Robert McNamara came up with this policy Defense Secretary Robert McNamara came up with this policy The idea was to build up your nuclear arsenal to make the counter-strike so frightening that neither side would use their weapons The idea was to build up your nuclear arsenal to make the counter-strike so frightening that neither side would use their weapons The belief was that if no one – Soviet or American – could survive a nuclear war, then there would not be one The belief was that if no one – Soviet or American – could survive a nuclear war, then there would not be one

4 Has NOTHING to do with snow or cold temperatures Has NOTHING to do with snow or cold temperatures A 46 year ( ) competition between the United States and the Soviet Union A 46 year ( ) competition between the United States and the Soviet Union Each side was trying to prove which society was the best Each side was trying to prove which society was the best The Soviet Union was trying to get communism to new countries (China, Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, etc.) The Soviet Union was trying to get communism to new countries (China, Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, etc.) The U.S. was trying to stop communism from spreading The U.S. was trying to stop communism from spreading There were 2 Germanys (east/west Germany – Berlin Wall) There were 2 Germanys (east/west Germany – Berlin Wall) There was an “arms race” each side was racing to make more nuclear bombs than the other side There was an “arms race” each side was racing to make more nuclear bombs than the other side There was a “space race” a race to see who could get into space 1 st There was a “space race” a race to see who could get into space 1 st Cuba allied with USSR and pointed missiles at the US Cuba allied with USSR and pointed missiles at the US Each side had hundreds of spies Each side had hundreds of spies People were kept inside communist countries by barbed wire and machine guns (Berlin Wall) People were kept inside communist countries by barbed wire and machine guns (Berlin Wall)

5 Different Ideologies (ideas that shape and guide a group) East (Soviet Union USSR) Socialism (government controls all – jobs, industry, housing, education, healthcare) Socialism (government controls all – jobs, industry, housing, education, healthcare) No one is homeless No one is homeless No one is without healthcare No one is without healthcare Not a lot of things to buy Not a lot of things to buy Rule by 1 party (communist party) Rule by 1 party (communist party) Government controlled media (no free speech) Government controlled media (no free speech) Want communism to spread Want communism to spread Citizens cannot leave (barbed wire) Citizens cannot leave (barbed wire) Godless- atheism Godless- atheism West- (USA and Western Europe) Capitalism (profit $$$ goes to the people) – more stores and stuff to buy but there are winners and losers (rich and poor) Capitalism (profit $$$ goes to the people) – more stores and stuff to buy but there are winners and losers (rich and poor) Democracy – Rule by the people Democracy – Rule by the people Free speech, free press Free speech, free press Free travel outside the country Free travel outside the country Trying to stop the spread of communism Trying to stop the spread of communism In God we trust In God we trust

6 What would Lenin say about capitalism? What would a millionaire say about Socialism?

7 Trying to gain Countries (Allies) for World War III

8 America: stopping the Spread of the Red

9 Atheist: NO God materialist- everything is “matter” there’s no soul –no heaven-no God Atheist: NO God materialist- everything is “matter” there’s no soul –no heaven-no God “religion is the opiate of the masses” “religion is the opiate of the masses” People need to be stirred up, mad want Revolution People need to be stirred up, mad want Revolution Religion was a “drug” that got people thinking of heaven Religion was a “drug” that got people thinking of heaven Most communists were atheists Most communists were atheists Believers were heavily persecuted Believers were heavily persecuted Closed and destroyed churches Closed and destroyed churches Thousands of priests sent to concentration camps or shot Thousands of priests sent to concentration camps or shot Brainwashed kids Brainwashed kids Museums of atheism Museums of atheism Anti- religious posters Anti- religious posters “Red” weddings/funerals “Red” weddings/funerals

10 *You hate communism *You wanted Hitler to hurt us *You didn’t share the German rocket technology *You give money to countries to stop communists * You are godless atheists *Communists take away people’s land and businesses *You don’t allow freedom *You are trying to spread communism around the world *You force communism on countries

11 Why didn’t Stalin trust America or Britain?

12 Why didn’t the US and Britain Trust Stalin? Why didn’t the US and Britain Trust Stalin?

13 KGB: Russian spies and secret police CIA: spies from the USA

14 Potsdam, Germany July 1945 Churchill, Truman, Stalin Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin Yalta, Russia February 1945

15 Potsdam, Germany Yalta, Russia

16 Meetings between Allied leaders at the end of WWII Yalta - February 1945 Yalta - February 1945 Friendly Friendly Divide Germany into 4 parts Divide Germany into 4 parts USSR agrees to help with Japan USSR agrees to help with Japan Potsdam- July 1945 Potsdam- July 1945 Not friendly Not friendly Disagreements over Germany and Eastern Europe Disagreements over Germany and Eastern Europe US has the atomic bomb and Stalin knows it US has the atomic bomb and Stalin knows it Churchill, Truman, Stalin Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin

17 Potsdam, Germany July 1945 Yalta, Russia Feb Churchill, Truman, Stalin Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin

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19 After WWII Stalin’s armies stayed in the countries of eastern Europe and rigged elections to make sure that all of them had Communist governments After WWII Stalin’s armies stayed in the countries of eastern Europe and rigged elections to make sure that all of them had Communist governments

20 “Issues” the U.S. and USSR had with each other 1. During WWII Stalin was pissed that the US was taking so long to enter the Europe war 1. During WWII Stalin was pissed that the US was taking so long to enter the Europe war 2. US shared nuclear secrets with Britain but not Russia 2. US shared nuclear secrets with Britain but not Russia 3. The United States was sneaky with the German rocket technology 3. The United States was sneaky with the German rocket technology 4. Stalin said that he would allow free elections in eastern Europe – but didn’t 4. Stalin said that he would allow free elections in eastern Europe – but didn’t 5. Communists destroy religion 5. Communists destroy religion 6. Communists want to spread communism 6. Communists want to spread communism 7. Stalin started giving weapons and $$$ to Mao and the communists in China 7. Stalin started giving weapons and $$$ to Mao and the communists in China 6. 6.

21 Closing Activity: 1. What are 2 characteristics of communism? 2. What would a communist say about capitalism? 3. What would a capitalist say about Communism? 4. Why was Stalin suspicious of USA/Britain? 5. Why is the US giving away money? 6. What are 3 things that suck about living under communism? 7. Why is the US suspicious of USSR?

22 1.When were the 2 meetings of Yalta and Potsdam? 2.Was Hitler dead for both? 3. Was the Atomic bomb available for both? 4. What were some things that were decided at Yalta? 5. What were some changes by the time Potdsam came around? 6. What were “issues” at each?

23 Closing Activity: Complete these sentences 1. Yalta… 1. Yalta… 2. Potsdam… 2. Potsdam… 3.The 3 leaders at Yalta were 3.The 3 leaders at Yalta were 4. The 3 leaders at Potsdam were… 5. Eastern European countries… 4. The 3 leaders at Potsdam were… 5. Eastern European countries… 6. Truman and Stalin disagreed at Potsdam by…. 6. Truman and Stalin disagreed at Potsdam by…

24 Drama between USSR and the West after WWII Will Stalin allow free elections in eastern Europe? Will Stalin allow free elections in eastern Europe? Will the US share information about the Atomic bomb? Will the US share information about the Atomic bomb?

25 Why all the drama? Russian troops stay in Eastern Europe Russian troops stay in Eastern Europe Stalin arrests opponents of communism in E. Europe Stalin arrests opponents of communism in E. Europe Russians close the borders of Eastern Europe with barbed wire Russians close the borders of Eastern Europe with barbed wire The Russians form Cominform to push communism in other countries The Russians form Cominform to push communism in other countries Americans do not share Atomic bomb with Russia Americans do not share Atomic bomb with Russia Truman says that the US will get involved to stop communism (containment) Truman says that the US will get involved to stop communism (containment) The US gives billions in aid in the Marshall Plan The US gives billions in aid in the Marshall Plan The Western nations form NATO The Western nations form NATO

26 Churchill’s reference to the “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an " iron curtain " has descended across the Continent. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an " iron curtain " has descended across the Continent.StettinBalticTriesteAdriaticStettinBalticTriesteAdriatic Iron Curtain: a curtain or wall of barbed wire and guards that stop anyone in eastern Europe from leaving and going to the west Iron Curtain: a curtain or wall of barbed wire and guards that stop anyone in eastern Europe from leaving and going to the west

27 The Marshall Plan The United States loaning millions of dollars and goods to the countries in Europe to help revive their economies The United States loaning millions of dollars and goods to the countries in Europe to help revive their economies And keep their capitalistic governments stable so that they wouldn’t turn to communism And keep their capitalistic governments stable so that they wouldn’t turn to communism

28 Truman Doctrine A.K.A “Containment:” The U.S. policy of getting very involved in containing communism to the countries where it already is Giving aid in money and weapons to countries who are in danger of falling to communism Goal: DON’T LET IT SPREAD! Even going to war Think – China, Korea, Vietnam Think – China, Korea, Vietnam

29 Contain the “Kool AID” COMMUNISM

30 Also in 1949

31 West Berlin: the island of capitalism in the sea of communism

32 Berlin Blockade of US, Britain and France joined their 3 parts together 1949 US, Britain and France joined their 3 parts together This infuriated Stalin and he cut off all supply lines into Berlin This infuriated Stalin and he cut off all supply lines into Berlin The Allies flew supplies into Berlin The Allies flew supplies into Berlin Stalin decided not to start a war so West Berlin remained free Stalin decided not to start a war so West Berlin remained free

33 Berlin Blockade of 1948

34 Churchill’s reference to the “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an " iron curtain " has descended across the Continent. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an " iron curtain " has descended across the Continent.StettinBalticTriesteAdriaticStettinBalticTriesteAdriatic Definition: a curtain or wall of barbed wire and guards that stop anyone in eastern Europe from leaving and going to the west Definition: a curtain or wall of barbed wire and guards that stop anyone in eastern Europe from leaving and going to the west

35 Berlin Wall: Constructed Torn down 1989

36 NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization A military alliance of countries in Western Europe and North America to create strength against the USSR A military alliance of countries in Western Europe and North America to create strength against the USSR Formed in 1949 Formed in 1949 How it works: How it works: If one country gets attacked all the others help If one country gets attacked all the others help

37 Warsaw Pact: The USSR and Countries of Eastern Europe’s alliance against NATO The USSR and Countries of Eastern Europe’s alliance against NATO Formed in 1955 Formed in 1955 Basically Stalin’s response to NATO Basically Stalin’s response to NATO

38 United Nations UN Formed after in 1945 WWII Formed after in 1945 WWII centered in New York centered in New York Mission: to keep peace and tackle world problems Mission: to keep peace and tackle world problems NOT repeat the mistakes of the League of Nations NOT repeat the mistakes of the League of Nations General Assembly General Assembly Began with 51 nations. Now has 193 – all can vote – voice opinions Began with 51 nations. Now has 193 – all can vote – voice opinions Security Council 15 countries – makes the decisions Security Council 15 countries – makes the decisions 5 Permanent members with VETO power 5 Permanent members with VETO power

39 5 permanent members of the UN Security Council USSR, Britain, USA, China, France USSR, Britain, USA, China, France Can Veto (stop) any UN action Can Veto (stop) any UN action

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41 Nikita Krushchev 3 rd dictator of USSR (after Lenin and Stalin) 3 rd dictator of USSR (after Lenin and Stalin) Was leader for Sputnik, 1 st man in space, built the Berlin Wall Was leader for Sputnik, 1 st man in space, built the Berlin Wall Put Missiles in Cuba Put Missiles in Cuba

42 Presidents during the Cold War in the 50s and 60s Harry Truman Harry Truman Dwight D Eisenhower Dwight D Eisenhower John F Kennedy John F Kennedy Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) (Vietnam) Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) (Vietnam)

43 Hydrogen Bomb Are aka thermonuclear bombs Developed in ,000 times more powerful than Atomic bombs H-bombs use fusion – ramming particles together (atomic bombs use fission –splitting atoms)

44 Arms Race A competition or “race” to see which side (USA or USSR) could build the biggest and most A competition or “race” to see which side (USA or USSR) could build the biggest and most Missiles, airplanes, ships, tanks Missiles, airplanes, ships, tanks

45 Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) Defense Secretary Robert McNamara came up with this policy Defense Secretary Robert McNamara came up with this policy The idea was to build up your nuclear arsenal to make the counter-strike so frightening that neither side would use their weapons The idea was to build up your nuclear arsenal to make the counter-strike so frightening that neither side would use their weapons The belief was that if no one – Soviet or American – could survive a nuclear war, then there would not be one The belief was that if no one – Soviet or American – could survive a nuclear war, then there would not be one

46 Space Race A race between the US and USSR dealing with trying to fire rockets and objects into to space A race between the US and USSR dealing with trying to fire rockets and objects into to space If a rocket could leave the atmosphere it could surely travel across oceans If a rocket could leave the atmosphere it could surely travel across oceans

47 Sputnik The first man-made satellite launched into space by the Soviet Union in October of 1957 The first man-made satellite launched into space by the Soviet Union in October of 1957

48 Space Race

49 Yuri Gagarin 1 st man into space st man into space 1961

50 CapitalismCommunism (socialism) Individuals (private citizens) own the means of production i.e. Phelps/Dodge mining company, Ford Motor Company, Nike, Coca Cola, Southwest Airlines, McDonalds, Hilton hotels, apartment complexes, thousands of acres of farmland, basically everything Individuals (private citizens) own the means of production i.e. Phelps/Dodge mining company, Ford Motor Company, Nike, Coca Cola, Southwest Airlines, McDonalds, Hilton hotels, apartment complexes, thousands of acres of farmland, basically everything Private individuals own the housing so people have to pay rent or buy Private individuals own the housing so people have to pay rent or buy Private citizens own the hospitals or insurance companies so you have to pay for healthcare Private citizens own the hospitals or insurance companies so you have to pay for healthcare Many schools are private - Harvard, Stanford, Duke University so students have to pay thousands in tuition Many schools are private - Harvard, Stanford, Duke University so students have to pay thousands in tuition Banks loan money so you can borrow “capital” to start your own business and make millions Banks loan money so you can borrow “capital” to start your own business and make millions Winners (rich) Losers (poor) Winners (rich) Losers (poor) The rich influence lawmakers to stay in power The rich influence lawmakers to stay in power It is very hard for the workers to go to college, borrow money so some say that the system is unfair It is very hard for the workers to go to college, borrow money so some say that the system is unfair Government or state control the factories (government controls all trains, mining, factories, restaurants, hotels, etc.) workers work for the government Government or state control the factories (government controls all trains, mining, factories, restaurants, hotels, etc.) workers work for the government Government owns all housing so no one is homeless Government owns all housing so no one is homeless Government owns all the hospitals – free healthcare Government owns all the hospitals – free healthcare Government controls all schools – free tuition Government controls all schools – free tuition No banks, no advertising, no commercials because no one is trying to become rich No banks, no advertising, no commercials because no one is trying to become rich you can’t own your own company and then create a chain of stores to become rich you can’t own your own company and then create a chain of stores to become rich No one is motivated to become rich so they don’t make thousands of stores – so there aren’t lots of things to buy No one is motivated to become rich so they don’t make thousands of stores – so there aren’t lots of things to buy Think of the cereal aisle in an American grocery store – in a communist country Cuba) there might be only white boxes that read “Corn Flakes” Think of the cereal aisle in an American grocery store – in a communist country Cuba) there might be only white boxes that read “Corn Flakes”

51 Capitalism is evil. Greed makes man exploit his fellow man Capitalism is evil. Greed makes man exploit his fellow man Socialism (government running things) is for the good of all – no one is homeless, unemployed or without health care Socialism (government running things) is for the good of all – no one is homeless, unemployed or without health care Capitalism is always about expanding and taking more – look at colonization Capitalism is always about expanding and taking more – look at colonization The USA and Britain entered into France (D-day) late because they wanted Germany to destroy Russia The USA and Britain entered into France (D-day) late because they wanted Germany to destroy Russia The USA and its allies are giving tons of money to countries to stop countries from choosing communism on their own The USA and its allies are giving tons of money to countries to stop countries from choosing communism on their own The USA is barbaric look at how they used the Atomic bomb on Japan The USA is barbaric look at how they used the Atomic bomb on Japan We need to get nuclear weapons to protect ourselves from the USA We need to get nuclear weapons to protect ourselves from the USA Competition between businesses is good – makes a better product Competition between businesses is good – makes a better product Private companies do a better job at running things than the government. Think of hospitals Private companies do a better job at running things than the government. Think of hospitals Communism takes competition out and no one is competing to make better products Communism takes competition out and no one is competing to make better products We in the west are afraid that the USSR will never leave Eastern Europe- you will force communist governments on them We in the west are afraid that the USSR will never leave Eastern Europe- you will force communist governments on them Karl Marx envisioned a world where communism overthrew capitalism – we know that is USSR’s goal Karl Marx envisioned a world where communism overthrew capitalism – we know that is USSR’s goal The USSR is giving aid the communists in China –you want communism to spread to China The USSR is giving aid the communists in China –you want communism to spread to China We need to build our military to keep communism from spreading We need to build our military to keep communism from spreading

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53 The Cold War Has NOTHING to do with snow or cold temperatures!!!!!! Has NOTHING to do with snow or cold temperatures!!!!!! A 46 + year ( ) competition between the United States and the Soviet Union A 46 + year ( ) competition between the United States and the Soviet Union The Soviet Union was trying to help countries become “communist” and the U.S. was trying to stop countries from falling to communism The Soviet Union was trying to help countries become “communist” and the U.S. was trying to stop countries from falling to communism Each side had spies trying to get info to hurt the other Each side had spies trying to get info to hurt the other Each side was trying to prove what system was better – Communism or Capitalism Each side was trying to prove what system was better – Communism or Capitalism USA was helping Russia’s enemies USA was helping Russia’s enemies USSR was helping USA ‘s enemies USSR was helping USA ‘s enemies (China, Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, etc.) There were 2 Germanys (China, Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, etc.) There were 2 Germanys There was an “arms race” each side was racing to make more nuclear bombs than the other side There was an “arms race” each side was racing to make more nuclear bombs than the other side There was a “space race” a race to see whose rocket technology could get more things into space and eventually the moon There was a “space race” a race to see whose rocket technology could get more things into space and eventually the moon

54 “Issues” the U.S. and USSR had with each other 1. During WWII Stalin was pissed that the US was taking so long to enter the Europe war 1. During WWII Stalin was pissed that the US was taking so long to enter the Europe war 2. Stalin had spies in New Mexico stealing Atomic secrets 2. Stalin had spies in New Mexico stealing Atomic secrets 3. The United States stole all the German rocket technology 3. The United States stole all the German rocket technology 4. Stalin said that he would allow free elections in eastern Europe – but didn’t 4. Stalin said that he would allow free elections in eastern Europe – but didn’t 5. Stalin started giving weapons and $$$ to Mao and the communists in China 5. Stalin started giving weapons and $$$ to Mao and the communists in China 6. Soviet troops stayed in North Korea and Eastern Europe 6. Soviet troops stayed in North Korea and Eastern Europe

55 “I do not know with what weapons World War 3 will be fought but World War 4 will be fought with sticks and stones” “I do not know with what weapons World War 3 will be fought but World War 4 will be fought with sticks and stones” Albert Einstein Albert Einstein

56 Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin at Yalta discussing what to do with Germany after W.W.II

57 EUROPE after W.W.II: notice the NATO countries and Warsaw Pact countries the “Iron Curtain”

58 Domino Theory: the belief by American military leaders that if one country in a region fell to communism then all the countries in that region would eventually fall to communism as well

59 Chinese Civil War Mao Zedong Mao Zedong Supported by USSR Supported by USSR Had the support of the peasants Had the support of the peasants Went on the “long march” and survived and thrived Went on the “long march” and survived and thrived Won the war and made China communist Won the war and made China communist Jiang Jieshi Jiang Jieshi Supported by the US Supported by the US Had the support of the business men Had the support of the business men Corruption and poor leadership lost the war Corruption and poor leadership lost the war Lost the war and fled to Taiwan Lost the war and fled to Taiwan

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61 The Korean War

62 The 38 th parallel At the end of World War II Koreans in northern Korea surrendered to Soviet troops At the end of World War II Koreans in northern Korea surrendered to Soviet troops Koreans living in the south surrendered to U.S. forces Koreans living in the south surrendered to U.S. forces A temporary truce divided the country at the 38 th parallel A temporary truce divided the country at the 38 th parallel There was a communist North Korea and a There was a communist North Korea and a capitalistic South Korea capitalistic South Korea

63 1949 Soviet supplies Soon after Soon after The Soviet Union started to supply North Korea with tanks, airplanes, and money in order to take over the peninsula. The Soviet Union started to supply North Korea with tanks, airplanes, and money in order to take over the peninsula.

64 Korean War begins On June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea On June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea South Korea asked the UN for help South Korea asked the UN for help The UN discussed its options The UN discussed its options Truman, following the “containment”, doctrine Truman, following the “containment”, doctrine told the world the US would defend South Korea told the world the US would defend South Korea 15 other UN nations joined the US 15 other UN nations joined the US

65 UN veto? South Korea asked UN to intervene. South Korea asked UN to intervene. When the vote came to the security council, the Soviets could not veto because they were absent protesting the fact that China was still being represented by Capitalist Chiang Kai Shek and not Communist Mao Zedong When the vote came to the security council, the Soviets could not veto because they were absent protesting the fact that China was still being represented by Capitalist Chiang Kai Shek and not Communist Mao Zedong The rest of the security council (Britain, U.S., capitalist China, and France voted to send troops to help South Korea The rest of the security council (Britain, U.S., capitalist China, and France voted to send troops to help South Korea

66 Troops A total of 18 nations, including United States and Britain. A total of 18 nations, including United States and Britain. They were all under the direct command of General Douglas MacArthur. They were all under the direct command of General Douglas MacArthur.

67 Early in the Korean War By September of 1950 the North Koreans had control of the entire peninsula. By September of 1950 the North Koreans had control of the entire peninsula. The only part that they didn’t have control of was a small part called Pusan. The only part that they didn’t have control of was a small part called Pusan. MacArthur launched a surprise attack using troops on the ground from Pusan, and a amphibious assault from Inchon. MacArthur launched a surprise attack using troops on the ground from Pusan, and a amphibious assault from Inchon.

68 China gets involved The UN troops pursued the retreating North Koreans across the 38 th parallel. The UN troops pursued the retreating North Koreans across the 38 th parallel. They had pushed them to the Yalu River, at the Chinese border. They had pushed them to the Yalu River, at the Chinese border. The Chinese felt threaten by the US involvement, and the American Fleet off of their coast. The Chinese felt threaten by the US involvement, and the American Fleet off of their coast. So In October of 1950, the Chinese sent 300,000 troops into North Korea. So In October of 1950, the Chinese sent 300,000 troops into North Korea.

69 Damn! China’s in With the Chinese troops helping North Korea, the War Changed. With the Chinese troops helping North Korea, the War Changed. The Chinese greatly outnumber the UN forces. The Chinese greatly outnumber the UN forces. By January 1951, they had push the UN completely out of North Korea. By January 1951, they had push the UN completely out of North Korea. Then they quickly moved into South Korea and captured the capital of Seoul. Then they quickly moved into South Korea and captured the capital of Seoul.

70 Truman and MacArthur After the capture of the Capital, MacArthur called for a nuclear attack against China. After the capture of the Capital, MacArthur called for a nuclear attack against China. Truman thought that this proposal by MacArthur was careless. Truman thought that this proposal by MacArthur was careless. Truman told MacArthur that, “We are trying to prevent another World War, not start one.” Truman told MacArthur that, “We are trying to prevent another World War, not start one.” In turn General MacArthur said some negatives comments about Truman and tried to go over the president’s head and appeal to congress. In turn General MacArthur said some negatives comments about Truman and tried to go over the president’s head and appeal to congress.

71 Truman addressing the nation informing them of his decision to remove or “fire” MacArthur from his role Truman addressing the nation informing them of his decision to remove or “fire” MacArthur from his role

72 “Cease-fire” at the 38 th parallel After two years of fighting, the UN forces regained what was South Korea, After two years of fighting, the UN forces regained what was South Korea, Both sides signed an armistice or cease-fire agreement Both sides signed an armistice or cease-fire agreement No peace treaty was signed No peace treaty was signed It was only a cease-fire agreement It was only a cease-fire agreement The border between the North and South Korea was still the 38 th parallel. The border between the North and South Korea was still the 38 th parallel.

73 The aftermath of the Korean War At the hand of Communist dictator Kim II Sung, North Korea established collective farms. At the hand of Communist dictator Kim II Sung, North Korea established collective farms. Developed heavy industry Developed heavy industry Built up a military. Built up a military. Kim Il Sung’s son Kim Jong Il has been a brutal tyrant – jailing thousands, people in his country have experienced food shortages and he’s been in trouble for obtain nuclear weapons illegally Kim Il Sung’s son Kim Jong Il has been a brutal tyrant – jailing thousands, people in his country have experienced food shortages and he’s been in trouble for obtain nuclear weapons illegally

74 South Korea prospered, with the help of the United States and other countries. South Korea prospered, with the help of the United States and other countries. South Korea concentrated on developing its industry. South Korea concentrated on developing its industry. They also concentrated on expanding their foreign trade. They also concentrated on expanding their foreign trade.

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78 Closing activity: Complete the sentence 1. The Truman Doctrine or “containment”___ 1. The Truman Doctrine or “containment”___ 2. The Marshall Plan___________ 2. The Marshall Plan___________ 3. the Iron Curtain___________ 3. the Iron Curtain___________ 4. NATO is a _____________ 4. NATO is a _____________ 5. The UN ______________ 5. The UN ______________ 6. The Warsaw Pact___________ 6. The Warsaw Pact___________ 7. The UN went to fight in South Korea because_______ 7. The UN went to fight in South Korea because_______ 8. The Chinese___________ 8. The Chinese___________ 9. Douglas Mac Arthur wanted to _______ 9. Douglas Mac Arthur wanted to _______ 10. President Truman _____________ 10. President Truman _____________ 11. The 38 th parallel __________ 11. The 38 th parallel __________

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80 Fulgencia Batista:Cuba’s corrupt dictator and Fidel Castro and Che Guevara: The Revolutionaries Fulgencia Batista:Cuba’s corrupt dictator and Fidel Castro and Che Guevara: The Revolutionaries

81 Bay of Pigs The CIA (USA) provided weapons, transportion for 1,400 Cuban exiles who wanted to overthrow Castro The CIA (USA) provided weapons, transportion for 1,400 Cuban exiles who wanted to overthrow Castro Castro knew they were coming and had 20,000 troops and killed or captured them Castro knew they were coming and had 20,000 troops and killed or captured them Huge embarrassment for the United States Huge embarrassment for the United States

82 Ernesto “Che” Guevara

83 Closing Activity: Complete the sentence 1. before Castro’s Revolution the USA and Cuba.. 1. before Castro’s Revolution the USA and Cuba.. 2.Castro took over Cuba in the year… 2.Castro took over Cuba in the year… 3. Castro was receiving ______ from USSR 3. Castro was receiving ______ from USSR 4. The Bay of Pigs…. 4. The Bay of Pigs…. 5. Russia gave Cuba…. 5. Russia gave Cuba…. 6. US spy planes saw______ in Cuba 6. US spy planes saw______ in Cuba 7. A choice president Kennedy had were… 7. A choice president Kennedy had were… 8. Another choice Kennedy had was…. 8. Another choice Kennedy had was…

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85 Oct 16 th JFK is informed Oct 16 th JFK is informed Oct 20 th Kennedy decide to Blockade Oct 20 th Kennedy decide to Blockade 10/22 Kennedy tells world of the Blockade 10/22 Kennedy tells world of the Blockade 10/23 Letter from Kruschev 10/23 Letter from Kruschev 10/24 Soviet ships are blocked by the blockade 10/24 Soviet ships are blocked by the blockade 10/25 letter from Kruschev 10/25 letter from Kruschev 10/26 3 rd letter from Kruschev 10/26 3 rd letter from Kruschev 10/27 Kennedy says ok to the deal 10/27 Kennedy says ok to the deal 10/28 Kruschev agrees to take missiles out 10/28 Kruschev agrees to take missiles out

86 Kennedy’s Options Do Nothing Do Nothing Bomb with planes Bomb with planes Full scale Invasion Full scale Invasion Blockade Blockade What would be good about this? What would be good about this? What would be bad about this option? What would be bad about this option?

87 Turkey

88 Results of the Cuban Missile Crisis Democrats fared well in the Congressional elections of 1962 Democrats fared well in the Congressional elections of 1962 Kennedy pushed for a nuclear test-ban treaty (one was signed in late 1963) Kennedy pushed for a nuclear test-ban treaty (one was signed in late 1963) Installation in August 1963 of a Moscow- Washington “hot line” for easy communication in case of crisis (teletype machine, not telephone) Installation in August 1963 of a Moscow- Washington “hot line” for easy communication in case of crisis (teletype machine, not telephone) Kennedy advocated to not think of the Soviet Union as a devil-ridden country Kennedy advocated to not think of the Soviet Union as a devil-ridden country

89 VIETNAM In the later 1950s fighting broke out between the North and the South In the later 1950s fighting broke out between the North and the South The United States sent military aid to the South Vietnamese because they were afraid of the The United States sent military aid to the South Vietnamese because they were afraid of the ‘Domino Theory” ‘Domino Theory”

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