Presentation on theme: "Italian Unification. Italy Italy had not been united since Roman times. In the 1800s it was split between several nations including Austria, France and."— Presentation transcript:
Italy Italy had not been united since Roman times. In the 1800s it was split between several nations including Austria, France and Sardinia. Most Italians lacked a national identity, but felt regional pride: Florence- Tuscans Venice- Venetians Naples- Neapolitans Similar to northerners, southerners, etc. in the USA
Nationalism grows Nationalism grows as a result of Napoleon’s invasions and the Congress of Vienna. Nationalists want to unit Italy because of its geography, common language and common traditions. Others view unity as a practical economic move, eliminating trade barriers between the regions and creating a single trade system.
Unity Camillo Cavour worked with the French to gain support in overthrowing Austrian rule in Northern Italy. Shortly after, Giuseppe Garibaldi created a force of 1,000 loyal volunteers to free southern Italy. Garibaldi and his men were known as the Red Shirts and became a symbol of pride for the Italians.
Hapsburg Empire (Austria)
Absolute Rulers King- Francis I Foreign Minister- Metternich Francis and Metternich held onto Absolute rule and avoided change. However, the Austrian Empire was multi-national- Over 70% of its people were of different cultural groups. They viciously crush revolts. As World War I arrives, Austria is struggling to hold onto its Empire.
19 th Century Russia Russia in the 1800’s was the largest, most populous nation in the world. Russia had grown over the years and included a partially European, partially Asian population
Russia Russia was untouched by the Enlightenment and world revolutions. Russia was economically underdeveloped. The Czars resisted industrialization fearing it would weaken his absolute power. There was an outdated social system based on Serfdom. Landowning nobles owned serfs who were bound to the land and subject to the master’s will.
Czar Alexander I ( ) Open to Liberal ideas at the beginning of his reign: 1) Eased censorship of the press 2) Promoted education 3) Proposed freeing the serfs By the time of Napoleon's invasion in 1812 Alexander had backed off reforms fearing he was losing power. During the Congress of Vienna in 1815 Alexander supported the conservative agenda.
Czar Nicholas I ( ) Shortly after taking the throne the Decembrist Revolts started. Army officers exposed to French Revolution ideals during Napoleon’s invasion led rioters demanding reforms and a constitution Nicholas refuses
Nicholas cracks down Czar Nicholas I cracked down after the Decembrist Revolts: -Banned books with liberal leanings -Only approved books used in schools and universities -Liberal and revolutionaries were exiled to Siberia Over 150,000 Russian are exiled to Siberia
New Slogan OrthodoxyAutocracyNationalism Russian Orthodox church and the Russian Government Absolute power of the Czar Respect Russian traditions and suppress others. Nicholas used a slogan of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationalism to express his plans for Russia He brutally dealt with anyone who dissented (disagreed)
Czar Alexander II ( ) His father told him, “I am handing you command of the country in a poor state” Alexander II came to power during the Crimean War. The war highlighted how far behind Russia was compared to the rest of Europe. With few rail lines, little industry and an outdated serf system, Russia was in need of reform. Crushing defeat in the Crimean War sparked revolts and calls for reform In 1861 Alexander emancipated the serfs (freed)
Reforms Emancipated the Serfs -the problem: The serfs were poor and couldn’t afford to buy enough land from their previous masters. Many left for the cities. Zemstvos -elected assemblies responsible for handling local issues such as road repair, schools and agriculture. Trial by Jury -created new laws including trial by jury for all Russians. The Reforms failed to appease the masses. They wanted a Liberal Constitutional government.
People’s Will Radical groups demanded further reform. One group, People’s Will, plotted to kill the Czar. They had many failed attempts but in March 1881 they successfully killed the czar by bombing his carriage.
Czar Alexander III ( ) Angry about his father’s murder, Alexander III ruthlessly cracked down on dissent (disagreements): Strict censorship, increased secret police activity and increased exiles of critics to Siberia. Launched Russification aimed against the other cultures in the Empire. Russian declared official language Russian Orthodox Church the official Church All others were savagely persecuted. What does this author think about Czar Alexander III? How do you know?
Pogroms Russification allowed for the persecution of different religious and cultural groups. The Jews became a large target: -forced to live in specified areas -only limited numbers could be doctors, lawyers, etc. Violent persecution of the Jews was encouraged. Gangs beat and killed Jews. Looted and burned their homes. Thousands fled Russia and became refugees- a person who flees their homeland to seek safety elsewhere.
Industrial Developments Despite his poor social policies, Alexander III did help modernize Russia. With loans from France, the Russians built the Trans-Siberian Railway. And more factories came into existence. Benefits- Economic growth and increased trade. Cons- Industrialization brought the same troubles: low wages, long hours, safety concerns and poor living conditions
Czar Nicholas II ( ) Nicholas II came to the throne with discontent throughout the nation, but he was determined to continue Russian autocracy. Bloody Sunday: Bloody Sunday: Father Gapon organized workers into a peaceful march to the Winter Palace of Nicholas II. They sang hymns and carried pictures of the Czar. Bloody Sunday: Bloody Sunday: Father Gapon organized workers into a peaceful march to the Winter Palace of Nicholas II. They sang hymns and carried pictures of the Czar. Despite the peaceful demonstration the Czar fled the palace and left soldiers to guard it. When the marchers arrived before the palace the soldiers opened fire, killing and wounding hundreds.
Future of Russia Discontent continues to grow By the start of WWI in 1914 Russia is headed for a Revolution (change) Czar Nicholas II will be the last Czar of Russia A new government will be instituted after a Russian Civil War
Review During the Age of Absolutism (1600s and 1700s), European monarchies sought to 1)Increase human rights for their citizens 2)Centralize political power in their nations 3)Develop better relations with Muslim rulers 4)Encourage the growth of cooperative farms
Review Which Prussian leader followed a policy of “Blood and Iron” in order to create a unified Germany? 1. Metternich 2. Bolivar 3. Bismarck 4. Cavour
Review Russia in the 1700s and Japan in the 1800s were similar in that both countries 1)Began the process of modernization after a long period of isolation 2)Developed democratic governments after years under absolute monarchies 3)Refused to accept western technological ideas 4)Adopted socialist economic systems after capitalism had failed.
Review A study of revolutions would most likely lead to the conclusion that pre-Revolutionary governments. 1. are more concerned about human rights than the governments that replace them 2. refuse to modernize their armed forces with advanced technology 3. attempt to bring about the separation of government from religion 4. fail to meet the political and economic needs of their people