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2014.   A verbal is a verb that is functioning as another part of speech.  There are three types of verbals:  Participles  Gerunds  Infinitives.

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Presentation on theme: "2014.   A verbal is a verb that is functioning as another part of speech.  There are three types of verbals:  Participles  Gerunds  Infinitives."— Presentation transcript:

1 2014

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3   A verbal is a verb that is functioning as another part of speech.  There are three types of verbals:  Participles  Gerunds  Infinitives What Are Verbals?

4   A participle is a verb that functions as an adjective  Remember that a participle can take several forms:  Fighting (present participle)  Fought (past participle)  Having been fighting (present perfect partciple)  Having fought (past perfect participle)  Having been fought (past perfect passive participle) Participles

5   Participles can appear alone or as part of a phrase.  The two fighting wrestlers battled for the title. (alone)  Fighting for the title, the wrestlers battled in the ring. (as a phrase) Participles

6   Remember that participles can be misplaced or dangle.  Bleeding from the mouth, the referee ordered the wrestler to step out of the ring. (misplaced – seems to modify the wrong word)  Losing consciousness outside the ring, the referee called the match a disqualification. (dangling – doesn’t modify any word in the sentence) Participle Problems

7   A gerund is a verb functioning as a noun.  A gerund always ends in –ing  A gerund can be used alone or as part of a phrase.  Winning is the only goal of any professional wrestler. (alone)  Winning the WWE championship is the only goal of any professional wrestler. (as part of a phrase) Gerunds

8   Gerunds can be used as subjects, objects, or appositives.  Defeating the Undertaker is Brock Lesnar’s greatest accomplishment. (as subject)  Brock Lesnar brags about defeating the Undertaker. (as object of preposition)  Brock Lesnar remembers defeating the Undertaker. (as direct object)  Brock Lesnar’s greatest accomplishment, defeating the Undertaker, is a reason for many fans to hate him. (as appositive) Gerunds

9   An infinitive is a verb in its base form (always preceded by the word “to”) that can be used as a subject, object, appositive, adjective, adverb, or complement. Infinitives

10  To eat crabs gives many Marylanders pleasure. (as subject) Fishermen now struggle to catch enough crabs. (as object) The primary task of environmentalists in Maryland is to preserve the crab population. (as complement) Their goal, to restore the crab population, requires a great deal of work. (as appositive) In the summer, my family visits the Wye River to catch crabs. (as adverb) There are fewer crabs to catch than ever before. (as adjective) Infinitive Examples

11   Remember that infinitives can never be “split,” which means to insert an adverb between the word “to” and the verb. Wrestling referees learn to quickly count to three during a pinfall. A submission occurs when a wrestler appears to intentionally tap on the ring. Infinitive Problems

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13 Exam Punctuation Practice Punctuate the Following Sentences

14 The dung beetle which is about the size of a quarter is the only non human animal on earth that navigates using the milky way it uses patterns in the moonlight and will become confused if unable to see the stars. Punctuate The Following Sentence

15 The dung beetle, which is about the size of a quarter, is the only non-human animal on earth that navigates using the milky way; it uses patterns in the moonlight and will become confused if unable to see the stars. Punctuate The Following Sentence

16 The beetle gets its name believe it or not from the fact that it rolls feces a name for excrement into a ball carries it home and feeds on it some dung beetles bury themselves in feces to live. Punctuate The Following Sentence

17 The beetle gets its name, believe it or not, from the fact that it rolls feces, a name for excrement, into a ball, carries it home, and feeds on it; some dung beetles bury themselves in feces to live. Punctuate The Following Sentence

18 Although it sounds disgusting dung beetles also use their dung to attract females the two insects will mate beside the ball and lay eggs inside of it. Punctuate The Following Sentence

19 Although it sounds disgusting, dung beetles also use their dung to attract females; the two insects will mate beside the ball and lay eggs inside of it. Punctuate The Following Sentence

20 Behind the dining hall Umberto succeeded in finding a smelly gross muffin that was covered in fur he was unsure of what to do Punctuate The Following Sentence

21 Behind the dining hall, Umberto succeeded in finding a smelly, gross muffin that was covered in fur; he was unsure of what to do. Punctuate The Following Sentence

22 While he was admiring the hairy muffin Umberto heard a mysterious sound in the backfields it sounded like it could be one of the following things a bird a dying cat or a constipated emu Punctuate The Following Sentence

23 While he was admiring the hairy muffin, Umberto heard a mysterious sound in the backfields; it sounded like it could be one of the following things: a bird, a dying cat, or a constipated emu. Punctuate The Following Sentence

24 Umberto fled in terror until he arrived at the well constructed wheeler hall and was stopped by Mr. Bailey an English teacher Dr. Brugh a German teacher Ms. Boehm a talented smart math teacher and Mr. Katchko a history teacher. Punctuate The Following Sentence

25 Umberto fled in terror until he arrived at the well-constructed Wheeler Hall and was stopped by Mr. Bailey, an English teacher; Dr. Brugh, a German teacher; Ms. Boehm, a talented, smart math teacher; and Mr. Katchko, a history teacher. Punctuate The Following Sentence

26 They sent him to the library but he had a hard time relaxing he read an article called Xbox One Is Amazing in the new issue of Game Informer magazine. Punctuate The Following Sentence

27 They sent him to the library, but he had a hard time relaxing; he read an article called “Xbox One Is Amazing” in the new issue of Game Informer magazine. Punctuate The Following Sentence

28 After only a few seconds passed he heard screaming from the back of the library and a velociraptor a fearsome dinosaur with sharp talons assaulted a boy who was working on a computer and then turned toward Umberto. Punctuate The Following Sentence

29 After only a few seconds passed, he heard screaming from the back of the library and a velociraptor, a fearsome dinosaur with sharp talons, assaulted a boy who was working on a computer and then turned toward Umberto. Punctuate The Following Sentence

30 Umberto who was very astute knew just what to do he sought the hairy muffin and hurled it at the dinosaur who recoiled in fear and disgust and fled the campus he was later seen devouring schoolchildren in Bristol Rhode Island. Punctuate The Following Sentence

31 Umberto, who was very astute, knew just what to do; he sought the hairy muffin and hurled it at the dinosaur, who recoiled in fear and disgust and fled the campus; he was later seen devouring schoolchildren in Bristol, Rhode Island. Punctuate The Following Sentence


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