Presentation on theme: "Just what are these things?!?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Just what are these things?!? VerbalsJust what are these things?!?
2 VerbalsDefinition: A verbal is a word formed from a verb that functions as another part of speech, such as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.They are used to add to writing to give more detailed information.Example: The lead story in the paper this morning had the following headline: “Fallen Boy Saved by Gorilla!”Although we often use “fallen” as part of a verb, here it works as an adjective, describing the boy. “Fallen” clearly conveys that the boy accidentally tumbled into the gorilla’s living area.
3 Types of Verbals There are 3 types of verbals that we will study: ParticipleGerundInfinitiveEach type of verbal can be used alone or as part of a phrase.
4 Participle and Participle Phrase Definition: A participle is a verb form that functions as an adjective.A participle phrase consists of a participle along with its modifiers and complements.Like other adjectives, participles and participle phrases modify nouns and pronouns.Example: A tired hiker woke a sleeping bear.When alone, participles usually come before the noun or pronoun it modifies, just like a regular adjective.When used as a phrase, the participle may come before or after the word modified.
5 Present Participles Like regular verbs, participles can change tense. A present participle always ends in –ing.Example: Growling, the bear rose from his slumber.Example: Cheering for the home team, the fans were on their feet.Beware!! A word ending in –ing may be a gerund, participle, or part of a verb phrase. We will talk later about how to tell the difference when we get to gerunds.
6 Past Participles A past participle of a regular verb ends in –ed. A past participle of an irregular verb, such as freeze, are formed in a variety of ways. You can refer to your book’s verb chapter (see irregular verbs) or you can consult a dictionary.Examples:The terrified traveler wanted to run.Frozen by fear, he was grateful that the bear only licked him.
7 Identify the participles; identify as present or past; identify the word the participle modifies. Indian Red was a horse living in Ontario.Walking along a road one night, he stopped suddenly.Chilled and fatigued, he should have been seeking shelter.Instead, he neighed and whinnied, trying to get cars to stop.Only a few speeding drivers were out on that cold night.
8 Identify the participles; identify as present or past; identify the word the participle modifies. Those who came by ignored the horse, driving right past him.Finally, one driver, his curiosity aroused, stopped to see what was wrong.Searching a snow-covered ditch near the horse, the man discovered an old woman.The woman, now numbed by the cold, had fallen into the ditch.Not even knowing her, Indian Red wanted to get help for her.
9 ~ Pg. 528 Exercise 2 ~Attracting huge crowds soccer is a popular sport.The game consists of two teams competing for goals.Playing within certain areas the goalkeepers can touch the ball with their hands.For other players, the only contact permitted by the rules is with their feet, heads, or bodies.The two teams playing the game kick off.
10 ~ Pg. 528 Exercise 2 ~The teams moving almost constantly during play kick the ball back and forth.Varying their formations players move about the field.By the 1800s, English schools playing a similar game had drawn up the first set of rules.Spreading throughout the world soccer became especially popular in Europe and Latin America in the late 1800s.Spectators standing on the sidelines cheered the teams.
11 ~ Pg. 528 Exercise 2 ~Representing two rival towns teams took their places on the field.Last year’s champions defending their title played energetically.Blowing a whistle the referee started the game.The team dressed in blue tried to advance the ball toward the goal.Kicking the ball out of bounds the blue team lost its advantage.
12 ~ Pg. 528 Exercise 2 ~The team’s star player dribbling the ball toward the goal suddenly tripped.An opponent rushing toward the ball prevented a goal.Passing the ball from player to player the team traveled down the field.The goalkeeper jumping as high as possible was unable to catch the ball.Kicking the ball high into the air a player on the blue team finally scored a goal.