Presentation on theme: "UNIT 5: CHINA. HISTORY For centuries China was a closed country trading only with their neighbors. They distrusted western nations. Eventually European."— Presentation transcript:
UNIT 5: CHINA
HISTORY For centuries China was a closed country trading only with their neighbors. They distrusted western nations. Eventually European nations and the US forced their way into China China was not strong enough militarily to keep the westerners out.
HISTORY China became divided into 3 groups: Give up traditional ways and adopt western ways Reject western ways Combination of both Sphere of Influence – Areas where an outside power has some political and economical influence but does not directly govern
Nationalist Party – disliked foreigners, but liked western ideas Sun-Yat-Sen – became the Nationalist leader of China HISTORY
Warlords – Regional leaders with their own military. They caused problems for Sun because he was unable to control all of China HISTORY
Chiang Kai Shek – took over after Sun died. He was able to defeat each warlord and unify China A split began in the Nationalist Party. Some favored Russian-style Communism HISTORY
Chiang ordered all Communists within the party to be killed The Communists fled to the southern mountains. Chiang sent troops to wipe out the Communists In 1934 – Communists flee again on what is now called the Long March. Many died along the way hunger disease attacks by Nationalist troops
The march covered 18 mountain ranges, 20 rivers, 8,000 miles and took 370 days Of the 86,000 that set out, only 36,000 survived. Many were killed but some deserted. LONG MARCH
Mao Zedong (Mao-Tse- Tung) became the new leader of the Communist Party COMMUNIST LEADER
COMMUNISM Japan took advantage of China’s problems and attacked. The Communists and Nationalists had to set aside their differences and unite to fight their common enemy Many previously uninterested Chinese peasants joined the Communist Party
1949 – Communists and Nationalist begin fighting again but this time the Communists win. Taiwan – Chiang and the Nationalists fled here COMMUNISM
Chiang established a government in Taiwan that was recognized by the US and most of the West. They did not recognize Mao’s Communist government as the official government of China October 1, 1949 – A new Communist nation is established: The People’s Republic of China Chiang’s government in Taiwan was never able to defeat the Communists and eventually the US and the West recognized Mao’s government as the official government of China
Collective Farms – A system of government owned farms where farmers work together to grow crops and share the profits THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD
GREAT LEAP FORWARD Great Leap Forward – A system put in by Mao when collectives failed Set up self-sufficient people’s communes Contained agriculture and industry The government made all production decisions Resembled military life Failed miserably – Great Leap Backward
GREAT LEAP FORWARD Command system – The government decides what goods and services will be produced Demand system – the people make the production decisions based on their purchases Mao was criticized and urged to slow down. “Reform takes time.”
Designed to re-educate the population about Communism Red Guard – Radical young men and women hired by Mao to enforce policies and re-educate citizens THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION
The idea was to destroy the 4 “olds” Old ideology Old thought Old habits Old customs THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION
Opposition was beaten, jailed, or executed The Cultural Revolution failed and ended in 1969 but it continued in rural areas for several more years Legacy: Economy was nearly ruined Thousands of innocent people were in jail An entire generation was left only partially educated
In 1976 Mao died Deng Xiaoping becomes the new leader Areas to improve: Agriculture Industry Science Technology DENG
CHANGE Contract Responsibility System – Allowed families to “rent” land from the government and grow whatever they wished. They paid their rent in crops, but were allowed to sell excess crops on the open market for whatever price they could get. Production rates increased rapidly
Heavy industry – mass production of steel items – tractors, trucks, etc. This was a priority under Stalin and Mao Light industry or consumer goods – Deng shifted the industrial focus away from heavy industry and placed it here. He believed that Chinese citizens would buy these goods with their new disposable income CHANGE
TROUBLE The “fifth Modernization” – People were happy with economic growth but now wanted political freedom Tiananmen Square – a gathering spot for students to discuss ideas and protest. For a while the government allowed this. After a time the government banned the protests Martial law – Law administered during periods of strict military control.
June 3, 1989 – protesters ignored the government and held a massive rally Government troops open fire on the protesters killing 2,000 (no exact figure is known) The USA and the west expressed outrage at this violation of human rights China cracked down on all forms of protest. TROUBLE
ECONOMY Today China has an open market but there is still some government ownership. China has the second largest economy in the world and is closing in on the US for #1 Politically China is still Communist No real freedom of speech No real freedom of religion No freedom of assembly China is a major trading partner of the US and owns much US debt
NO CENSORSHIP HERE!!
CULTURE Population – Nearly 1.4 billion. It is the world’s most populous nation Mao urged large families figuring that a large population would be difficult to defeat in war This created many problems especially food and housing shortages Deng implemented a one child policy If the policy was not followed, violators faced fines and possible job loss City dwellers mostly handled the policy but farmers ignored it and faced fines This policy is still in effect, but not for all parts of China
IN ORDER TO MOVE Chinese citizens need government permission - To insure that some people remain in farming - To control population of regions (control overcrowding)
ETHNIC GROUPS China has 56 ethnic groups but they make up only 8% of the population The Han ethnic group makes up 92% of the population They speak the Mandarin language The written language is non-phonetic and gives no clues as to pronunciation They do not have an alphabet Ideogram – a picture or character that represents a thing or idea
CULTURE To read a paper one would have to know 2,000-3,000 characters To master the written language one would have to know about 20,000 characters Communication is easier because it eliminates dialect problems and double meaning words
Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism are common Daoism – happiness lies in living a harmonious relationship with nature RELIGION
Based on the teachings of Confucius (DUH!) People must respect laws Parents must set a good example and children must obey parents Must honor ancestors RELIGION
the goal is nirvana – a state of peace and bliss where there is no pain or suffering Suffering is caused by craving, usually of material goods. The way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate craving Many devout Buddhists take a vow of poverty BUDDHISM
Dalai Lama – The leader of the Buddhist faith Buddhists believe that he is the reincarnate of Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) Atheism – The official government view of religion in China BUDDHISM
Tibet – region in China where life is based on the Buddhist religion. It is communal and very traditional. TIBET
DALAI LAMA QUOTES Happiness is not something ready-made. It comes from your own actions. If you can, help others; if you cannot do that, at least do not harm them. If you want others to be happy, practice compassion. If you want to be happy, practice compassion. My religion is very simple. My religion is kindness.
MORE QUOTES Remember that not getting what you want is sometimes a wonderful stroke of luck. We can never obtain peace in the outer world until we make peace with ourselves. Be kind whenever possible. It is always possible. My religion is very simple. My religion is kindness.
A small island about 100 miles off the southeast coast of China Its citizens have the same history, language, and culture as the Chinese They are Nationalists that fled to Taiwan after the Communist victory in 1949 TAIWAN
It has a strong economy with US help China views Taiwan as a colony The US views Taiwan as an independent nation, but we are careful not to upset the Chinese TAIWAN
A City-State in southern China Covers only 80 mi2 with a population of 1.2 million. Density is 42,500/mi2 Many citizens fled Communism in Was once a British colony. GB leased HK from China for 99 years in HONG KONG
GB handed HK back to China in 1997 HK has a strong economy based on shipping and manufacturing As part of the handover, China can make no political or economic changes for 50 years HONG KONG