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LIFE IN UPPER & LOWER CANADA 1815-1855  Chapter 1 & 2- Class Notes  Rebellions of Upper & Lower Canada  British North America  Responsible Government.

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Presentation on theme: "LIFE IN UPPER & LOWER CANADA 1815-1855  Chapter 1 & 2- Class Notes  Rebellions of Upper & Lower Canada  British North America  Responsible Government."— Presentation transcript:

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2 LIFE IN UPPER & LOWER CANADA  Chapter 1 & 2- Class Notes  Rebellions of Upper & Lower Canada  British North America  Responsible Government

3 Borders what is now New Brunswick; northeast area of United States; & Great lakes Upper Canada- Southern Ontario Lower Canada- Quebec and Newfoundland Upper and Lower Canada both British Colonies Lower Canada mainly French speaking “Canadiens” Upper Canada mainly English speaking people GEOGRAPHY OF UPPER AND LOWER CANADA

4 MAP OF UPPER & LOWER CANADA

5 Habitant: (French) tenant farmer; rent land; poor Seigneur: (French) land owner; wealthy and powerful Merchant: (English) business owner; fur & timber industry; wealthy and powerful Professionals: (French & English) doctors, lawyers, etc.; middle class; seeking democracy 4 MAIN GROUPS IN LOWER CANADA:

6 Lower Canada wealthy seigneur and member of the Legislative Assembly Had strong support of French land owning and political elite Conservative- favored doing things traditional & slow way Served as officer in militia by defending British North America from Americans during war of 1812 Elected speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada Became leader of the Parti Canadien political party LOUIS-JOSEPH PAPINEAU

7 Governor-British appointed Legislative Council- English-speaking merchants and seigneurs; friends of Governor; appointed not elected; veto power Legislative Assembly voted by citizens Two political parties dominated- Chateau Clique, Parti Canadien (Parti Patriote) Chateau Clique- Wealthy British and French who supported British rule Parti Canadien- Wealthy and poor French- early separatists GOVERNMENT IN LOWER CANADA

8 GOVERNMENT IN UPPER & LOWER CANADA- CONSTITUTIONAL ACT, 1791

9 British merchants wanted to increase taxes for canals, harbors and roads for merchant use- few roads were built to help farmers Increased immigration from Great Britain began to threaten French culture and language 1832, immigrant ship brought disease cholera, killed 5500 Legislative assembly(French-speaking) hard to make laws 1836, crops failed, Canadians face starvation 1837, economic depression, English merchants blamed UNREST IN LOWER CANADA

10 British Army versus Patriote Army (Rebels) Began on November 23, 1837 at St. Denis; rebel victory Rebels built a fortress at St. Charles to fight the British but lost there and later at Saint-Eustache – Baker's Farm – Lacolle – Odelltown & BeauharnoisSaint-EustacheBaker's FarmLacolleOdelltownBeauharnois Pappineau fled to U.S After all the fighting 12 were hung 58 were sent to Australia and 12 hundred were set free. THE ARMED REBELLION IN LOWER CANADA

11 Pioneer homestead start from scratch and forced native inland Most habitant were subsistence farmers meaning they only farm for their family Life in towns was easier Town were hubs Town supplied a people with basic service Transportation mostly walking LIFE IN UPPER CANADA

12 Lieutenant(British appointed) highest ranking Legislative and Executive Council 2nd highest Executive and Legislative dominated government business and social life Legislative assembly (Elected by voters) 3rd highest Had little power law has to be approved by council and Lieutenant GOVERNMENT OF UPPER CANADA

13 Small group of powerful people in upper Canada As well as friends and supporters known as Tories Didn’t want US government to be part of Canadian government Defended tradition Believed power should be in the hands of few capable people (themselves) Believed Church of England should have power Loyal to Great Britain FAMILY COMPACT

14 Opposed the power of family compact Wanted changes in government and society of upper Canada Divided into moderate and radical groups. Robert Gourlay - plan to bring people from Britain to farm in upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie , established “the colonial advocate” a newspaper that spoke out on land problems, power of family compact and question to who was a upper Canadian Sir Francis Bond Head - Appointed Lieutenant - governor of Upper Canada in 1835, was Reformer for short period but rejected WHO ARE THE REFORMERS AND WHAT DID THEY OPPOSE?

15 William Lyon Mackenzie turned people against government in Northern Toronto Radicals wanted upper Canada like the American government December 5 Mackenzie led 800 men down Yonge street in Toronto In the United States Sir Francis bond head tried to raise an army to liberate upper Canada giving 120 hectares of land for whoever would join him Caught for breaking legal neutrality between Canada and the US jail 11 months ARMED REBELLION OF UPPER CANADA

16 Lower Canada became even worse than before the rebellion Upper Canada afraid to speak out because moderate reformers were branded as rebels Prime minister decided to send Lord Durham as governor general AFTERMATH OF THE REBELLION

17 John George Lambton (Lord Durham) sent to Quebec City as governor general. Suggested solutions for rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. Wrote “report on Affairs of British Canada” also known as Durham report Named “Radical Jack” in British House of Commons because of radical policies. Upper and Lower Canada unite and become one colony, called United Province of Canada - would unite English speaking people, would give them majority in gov’t New colony should have responsible government - Local powers handled by colony: Imperial powers written, Governor advised by Executive Council only. LORD DURHAM AND HIS REPORT

18 Aim: create single government, establish English as official language Was first step toward Confederation Canada was split as Canada West (Upper Canada) and Canada East (Lower Canada, Ontario) In 1847, Lord Elgin became governor Executive Council/Cabinet got most power and are responsible to Legislative Assembly Many members formed political parties to achieve power. Nova Scotia:1847, New Brunswick: 1854, Newfoundland:1855, Prince Edward Island: Received responsible gov’t in these years. THE ACT OF UNION, 1841

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21 PLANTING THE SEED OF NATIONHOOD Why were some events in Canada’s history key in allowing us to become a nation?

22 WHO OCCUPIED EACH COLONY IN UPPER & LOWER CANADA? Lower Canada Population increased from: in 1806 to in 1841 Very high birth rates among French speaking population In addition British and American immigrants settled the eastern townships that had been set aside for English speaking farmers Upper Canada Before 1812 loyalists settled upper Canada After 1812 a wave of settlers from great Brittan took their place Population Increased from: in 1806 to in 1841

23 Life in Lower Canada  Male ruling society  3 major groups- French Speaking Habitants, French Speaking Professional Men, and English Speaking Merchants  The French scared of Adapting to the English way of life  Merchants were newcomers of lower Canada  Wanted roads, and harbours-paid from government taxes  Professional Men well educated, wanted to lead the colonies  Saw British as cultural threat formed a party called “ parti canadiens” UPPER AND LOWER CANADA

24 3 main groups:  French Speaking Habitants (Tenant Farmers) – Main Concern: Scarcity of Land, Poverty, Fear of English Speaking new comers  English Speaking Merchants (Rich, Powerful) – Main Concern: Infrastructure  French Speaking Professional Men (Newest “Group”) – Separate French/ Canadian nation Life in Upper Canada Daily Life in Upper Canada  More fields were cleared in Upper Canada  Villages began to grow in places that were not convenient for farmers Kingston  Developed as a British military for lake Ontario  Was the largest and most important town in Upper Canada for many years York  Queen’s rangers began clearing land to build a fort in 1793  In 1834, it was renamed Toronto

25 Services in the Towns  By the 1840’s cities were installing sewer systems  In the 1820’s and 1830’s started to establish volunteer fire departments Transportation  Walking was often the safest and fastest way to get around  Unpaved streets in towns were unpaved streets turned to mud Louis-Joseph Papineau  Strong supporter of the old French order in Lower Canada  Served as a officer in the military defending British North America during the war of 1812  Elected to be in the legislative assembly of Lower Canada in 1809  Leader of Parti Candien

26 Government of Lower Canada  Established by Constitutional act in 1791  Power limited by governors and councils  Members of legislative councils were voted in for life  English concerns were usually different from French concerns  The group which the most power was Chateau Clique  Believed that power should be in hands of a few capable people  Wanted the Roman Catholic church to stay power Government of Upper Canada  In 1830 government remained the same as the constitutional act in 1791  Two political groups the Torries and the Reformers  Appointed Legislative council to Executive council  Elected the Legislative Assembly GOVERNMENT OF UPPER AND LOWER CANADA

27  French and English speaking merchants wanted different things for lower Canada  Merchants wanted to improve roads, canals and harbours  Immigration caused problems  Chateau Clique was encouraging immigration from great Britain  In 1832 and immigrant ship brought a deadly disease, cholera  The disease 5500 victims THE UNREST IN LOWER CANADA

28 Lower Canada  An armed conflict between lower Canada and the British Colonial, power of that province  The political leader was Joseph Papinea  The Canadians were ready to fight on November 1837  British troops charged and the Rebellions lost  The largest battle was held at St. Eustach on December 14, 1837  The Rebel leader, Dr. J.Q. Chenier along with rebels died  The British robbed and burned their village Upper Canada  Rebellion against the British colonial government in 1837 and 1838  After the war of 1812 family compact owned most land “Crown Reserves” and “Protestant Clergy”  The lower Canada broke out in autumn 1837 Bond Head sent all British troops to help suppress it  Short Fight (less than 30 minutes) the battle finished and the rebel forces retreated  1860’s former rebels compensated by the Canadian government THE ARMED REBELLION IN UPPER AND LOWER CANADA

29  Upper Canada has an elite called Family Compact  Was a small group of powerful people in the colony of upper Canada  Along with friends and supporters were know as Tories  Did not want Americans to be part of the government in Upper Canada  Defended tradition (The things that had always been done) and opposed change  Believed power should be in the hands of a few capable people (themselves)  Believed the church of England should be powerful in the colony  Were loyal to great Brittan and the British government  They had power to stop any laws passed by the legislative assembly  Most Family Compact members were British immigrants who arrived before the 1800’s FAMILY COMPACT

30 What did they oppose?  Opposed the power of the Family Compact  Wanted changes in government and society of Upper Canada  Divided into moderate and radical groups  Included some radicals who later became rebels  Robert Gurley ( ) arrived in Upper Canada in 1817  His plan was to bring poor people to farm in New Britain  He sent a questionnaire famers to see hoe their progress was  He also asked them to name thing that prevented in their towns  He criticized Family Compact THE REFORMERS

31  Upper Canada was very short and disorganized  London government was concerned about Rebellion  Bond Head was recalled in 1837 he was replaced with Sir George Arthur  Lord Durham assigned to report grievances among the colonists and find a way to appease them  Lord Durham’s report led to the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the province of Canada in 1840 AFTERMATH OF THE REBELLION

32 Two Major recommendations in his report are: 1.The two colonies should become one called the United Province of Canada 2.The United Colony should have a responsible government  The British imperial powers(?) should be sent out in writing. All other legal power(?)  Would be handled by the colonies Executive council and would be advised  The governor stayed neutral but signed things by the executive council  The executive council was not picked from the government but was chosen by leaders of other groups (legislative assembly) this is called “Responsible government”  Members of the executive council would stay in the council if half of the legislative assembly supports them Personal Information   Arrived in Quebec city as a governor general of British north America in 1838  Interested in education the poor LORD DURHAM’S REPORT

33  Since the Rebellion wanted a better and responsible government British passed a law called the Act of Union  British government acted on one of Lord Durham’s recommendations  The act of union joined in Upper and Lower Canada as the united province  The two aims of the British were to control the two colonies of Canada into one and give the English people control of the newly named colony and to have a new colony with a responsible government  They also established English as the official language of government THE ACT OF UNION (1841)

34  Copy down the following questions: 1.What was the Act of Union and how did it help to unite the Canada? 2.Who was Lord Durham? Why is he significant in Canadian History? How did his report help form the identity and culture of Canada? 3.Why was their unrest in Upper and Lower Canada? How did this unrest lead to the Rebellions of ? 4.What was the government in Upper Canada? What was the government in Lower Canada? Were they similar? Different? How so? DO NOT ANSWER THEM YET!! ASSIGNMENT

35  Key Events In Canadian History Which influenced The Nation We Have Today REBELLIONS UPPER AND LOWER CANADA 1837 & 1838

36  Governance in the Colony  The Governors  Land Issue  Transportation Issue  Special Privileges for a few people BACKGROUND TO THE ISSUE

37  Colony had elected Assembly representatives from each district  Made plans for colony needing approval of Governor & Councils  Executive & Legislative Councils appointed from ‘Upper Class’, & weren’t bound to follow wishes of the people  Real power was in the hand of the Governor & Councils, the people had no REAL influence GOVERNANCE IN THE COLONY

38  British men appointed by English monarch  Unfamiliar with local issues & conditions  Depended on the advice of their councils  Usually United Empire Loyalists  They were wealthy & better educated so better able to govern ordinary people  Anglican (church) should have ‘position’ THE GOVERNORS

39  Best land given to Family Compact/friends  Exec & Leg Councilors controlled 90% of land, not farmed, would sell for a profit  1/7 of land went to Anglican Church, not other religions though (clergy reserves)  New settlers received only poor, uncleared farmland LAND ISSUES

40 TRANSPORTATION ISSUES  Farmers needed roads to get to/from markets  Most were impassable  Govt. collected taxes to build canals, mainly used to benefit merchants & Family Compact/friends  Farmers felt govt. did not grant land/$ to them for land/tools  Bankers & merchants grew rich…

41 SPECIAL PRIVILEGES FOR A FEW  Governor appointed all officials  Councils, judges, sheriffs, justice of peace  Coroners, customs officers, postal officials, immigration officers & Indian Affairs officials  As head of military he appointed 1500 officers  Made land grants & spent crown $ for pensions to friends  Good jobs to Family Compact & friends

42 LOWER CANADA (QUEBEC)  Louis-Joseph Papineau led the Patriots against the governor & the Chateau Clique, & loss of land to growing Anglophone population  Cultural conflict between French & English Cdns.  Fr. dominated the Assembly, was controlled by the Br. Councils  Created the 92 Resolutions  Some wanted USA Republic system  Fall, 1837, armed revolt failed, vs. govt. & RC church, again in 1838  Papineau fled to USA, then France, returned & Pardoned in 1845

43  William Lyon Mackenzie led the Reformers against the Family Compact  Did not support the Constitution Act of 1791  Believed in responsible govt.  Demanded 2 constitutional reforms  Elected Legislative Council  Executive council responsible to Assembly  Reformers were against  Clergy Reserves,  Land grants to the oligarchies,  Influence of the Church of England  Power of the Banks UPPER CANADA (ONTARIO)

44  Protesting against the Oligarchies control  Desired a Responsible Government  Wanted less Church control  Assembly had to approve taxes or no collection would occur  Upper Canada  William Lyon Mackenzie  The Reformers  Vs. Family Compact  Lower Canada  Louis Joseph Papineau  The Patriots  Vs. Chateau Clique REBELLIONS OF

45 CONSEQUENCES OF REBELLION  Rebellion Losses Bill  Led to the Durham Report of the 1840’s  French Assimilation into English Canada  Act of Union unites the ‘two’ Canadas  Achievement of Responsible Government  Led to Confederation in the 1860’s

46 LORD DURHAM’S REPORT  Durham's Recommendations  to unite Upper and Lower Canada to make the French a minority  to assimilate or anglicize the French majority in Lower Canada  to grant responsible government  Consequences of Durham's Recommendations  Upper and Lower Canada were united in 1840  Responsible government was granted in 1848 leading to Confederation in 1867  Created the roots of today’s French ‘separatism’

47 REBELLIONS LOSSES BILL 1849  Reformers controlled the Assembly, their bill  sought to compensate those in what had been Lower Canada for damages that resulted from the rebellions.  was controversial because the Tories objected that many of the claimants were former rebels who were against the Crown.  was well received by French Canadians, but British elements opposed it so strongly that they attacked Elgin and burned the parliament building down in Montreal

48 CONFEDERATION 1867  The Province of Canada, (Ontario & Quebec) New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island.  A system based on British Parliament  Proposed limited central government balanced by provincial power.  Rejected the strict application of "rep by pop.“ the senate represented regions  Called for a two-chamber (bicameral) parliament, including a (appointed) senate and a (elected) house of commons.

49 OUR THESIS If in the position of the Reformers or Patriots, a reasonable citizen would support ‘no representation = no taxes’ since a true democracy must have the citizen’s power move up to the ‘elected’ govt. officials, not from appointed officials ‘down’ to the citizens. If every ‘democracy’ ignored their citizens and gave special privileges to a few, rebellion and civil war would surely follow. Given that the rebellions led to Confederation 1867, which spawned the nation we have today, the rebels did the right thing and definitely helped to create the model of democracy that Canada represents today.

50 REFERENCES  ec.europa.eu/education/img/flags/canada.gif   upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/Cana da_upper_lower_map.PNG/800px- Canada_upper_lower_map.  PNGcanadawiki.org/images/d/d5/Simcoeuppercanada.jpg     homepages.ius.edu/raastron/Pics/farmers.jpg   

51  Unknown author.The Canadas. Retrieved May 30, 2007 from the internet:   Canada Revisited textbook-pages BIBLIOGRAPHY

52 MANISHA BASSAN EDITED BY:


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