Presentation on theme: "Life in Upper & Lower Canada"— Presentation transcript:
1Life in Upper & Lower Canada 1815-1855 Chapter 1 & 2- Class NotesRebellions of Upper & Lower CanadaBritish North AmericaResponsible Government
2Geography of Upper and Lower Canada Borders what is now New Brunswick; northeast area of United States; & Great lakesUpper Canada- Southern OntarioLower Canada- Quebec and NewfoundlandUpper and Lower Canada both British ColoniesLower Canada mainly French speaking “Canadiens”Upper Canada mainly English speaking people
44 Main Groups in Lower Canada: Habitant: (French) tenant farmer; rent land; poorSeigneur: (French) land owner; wealthy and powerfulMerchant: (English) business owner; fur & timber industry; wealthy and powerfulProfessionals: (French & English) doctors, lawyers, etc.; middle class; seeking democracy
5Louis-Joseph Papineau Lower Canada wealthy seigneur and member of the Legislative AssemblyHad strong support of French land owning and political eliteConservative- favored doing things traditional & slow wayServed as officer in militia by defending British North America from Americans during war of1812Elected speaker of the Legislative Assemblyof Lower CanadaBecame leader of the Parti Canadienpolitical party
6Government in Lower Canada Governor-British appointedLegislative Council- English-speaking merchants and seigneurs; friends of Governor; appointed not elected; veto powerLegislative Assembly voted by citizensTwo political parties dominated- Chateau Clique, Parti Canadien (Parti Patriote)Chateau Clique- Wealthy British and French who supported British ruleParti Canadien- Wealthy and poor French- early separatists
7Government in Upper & Lower Canada- Constitutional Act, 1791
8Unrest in Lower CanadaBritish merchants wanted to increase taxes for canals, harbors and roads for merchant use- few roads were built to help farmersIncreased immigration from Great Britain began to threaten French culture and language1832, immigrant ship brought disease cholera, killed 5500Legislative assembly(French-speaking) hard to make laws1836, crops failed, Canadians face starvation1837, economic depression, English merchants blamed
9The Armed Rebellion In Lower Canada British Army versus Patriote Army (Rebels)Began on November 23, 1837 at St. Denis; rebel victoryRebels built a fortress at St. Charles to fight the British but lost there and later at Saint-Eustache – Baker's Farm – Lacolle – Odelltown & BeauharnoisPappineau fled to U.SAfter all the fighting 12 were hung 58 were sent to Australia and 12 hundred were set free.
10Life in upper CanadaPioneer homestead start from scratch and forced native inlandMost habitant were subsistence farmers meaning they only farm for their familyLife in towns was easierTown were hubsTown supplied a people with basic serviceTransportation mostly walking
11Government of upper Canada Lieutenant(British appointed) highest rankingLegislative and Executive Council 2nd highestExecutive and Legislative dominated government business and social lifeLegislative assembly (Elected by voters) 3rd highestHad little power law has to be approved by council and Lieutenant
12Family Compact Small group of powerful people in upper Canada As well as friends and supporters known as ToriesDidn’t want US government to be part of Canadian governmentDefended traditionBelieved power should be in the hands of few capable people (themselves)Believed Church of England should have powerLoyal to Great Britain
13Who are the reformers and what did they oppose? Opposed the power of family compactWanted changes in government and society of upper CanadaDivided into moderate and radical groups.Robert Gourlay - plan to bring people from Britain to farm in upper CanadaWilliam Lyon Mackenzie , established “the colonial advocate” a newspaper that spoke out on land problems, power of family compact and question to who was a upper CanadianSir Francis Bond Head - Appointed Lieutenant - governor of Upper Canada in 1835, was Reformer for short period but rejected
14Armed Rebellion of Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie turned people against government in Northern TorontoRadicals wanted upper Canada like the American governmentDecember 5 Mackenzie led 800 men down Yonge street in TorontoIn the United States Sir Francis bond head tried to raise an army to liberate upper Canada giving 120 hectares of land for whoever would join himCaught for breaking legal neutrality between Canada and the US jail 11 months
15Aftermath of the rebellion Lower Canada became even worse than before the rebellionUpper Canada afraid to speak out because moderate reformers were branded as rebelsPrime minister decided to send Lord Durham as governor general
16Lord Durham And his Report John George Lambton (Lord Durham) sent to Quebec City as governor general.Suggested solutions for rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada.Wrote “report on Affairs of British Canada” also known as Durham reportNamed “Radical Jack” in British House of Commons because of radical policies.Upper and Lower Canada unite and become one colony, called United Province of Canada - would unite English speaking people, would give them majority in gov’tNew colony should have responsible government - Local powers handled by colony: Imperial powers written, Governor advised by Executive Council only.
17The Act of Union, 1841Aim: create single government, establish English as official languageWas first step toward ConfederationCanada was split as Canada West (Upper Canada) and Canada East (Lower Canada, Ontario)In 1847, Lord Elgin became governorExecutive Council/Cabinet got most power and are responsible to Legislative AssemblyMany members formed political parties to achieve power.Nova Scotia:1847, New Brunswick: 1854, Newfoundland:1855, Prince Edward Island: Received responsible gov’t in these years.
20PLANTING THE SEED OF NATIONHOOD 1815-1855 Why were some events in Canada’s history key in allowing us to become a nation?
21WHO OCCUPIED EACH COLONY IN UPPER & LOWER CANADA? Population increased from: in 1806 to in 1841Very high birth rates among French speaking populationIn addition British and American immigrants settled the eastern townships that had been set aside for English speaking farmersUpper CanadaBefore 1812 loyalists settled upper CanadaAfter 1812 a wave of settlers from great Brittan took their placePopulation Increased from: in 1806 to in 1841
22UPPER AND LOWER Canada Life in Lower Canada Male ruling society 3 major groups- French Speaking Habitants, French Speaking Professional Men, and English Speaking MerchantsThe French scared of Adapting to the English way of lifeMerchants were newcomers of lower CanadaWanted roads, and harbours-paid from government taxesProfessional Men well educated, wanted tolead the coloniesSaw British as cultural threat formed aparty called “ parti canadiens”
233 main groups: Life in Upper Canada Daily Life in Upper Canada French Speaking Habitants (Tenant Farmers) – Main Concern: Scarcity of Land, Poverty, Fear of English Speaking new comersEnglish Speaking Merchants (Rich, Powerful) – Main Concern: InfrastructureFrench Speaking Professional Men (Newest “Group”) – Separate French/ Canadian nationLife in Upper CanadaDaily Life in Upper CanadaMore fields were cleared in Upper CanadaVillages began to grow in places that were not convenient for farmersKingstonDeveloped as a British military for lake OntarioWas the largest and most important town in Upper Canada for many yearsYorkQueen’s rangers began clearing land to build a fort in 1793In 1834, it was renamed Toronto
24Louis-Joseph Papineau Services in the TownsBy the 1840’s cities were installing sewer systemsIn the 1820’s and 1830’s started to establish volunteer fire departmentsTransportationWalking was often the safest and fastest way to get aroundUnpaved streets in towns were unpaved streets turned to mudLouis-Joseph PapineauStrong supporter of the old French order in Lower CanadaServed as a officer in the military defending British North America during the war of 1812Elected to be in the legislative assembly of Lower Canada in 1809Leader of Parti Candien
25GOVERNMENT OF UPPER AND LOWER CANADA Government of Lower CanadaEstablished by Constitutional act in 1791Power limited by governors and councilsMembers of legislative councils were voted in for lifeEnglish concerns were usually different from French concernsThe group which the most power was Chateau CliqueBelieved that power should be in hands of a few capable peopleWanted the Roman Catholic church to stay powerGovernment of Upper CanadaIn 1830 government remained the same as the constitutional act in 1791Two political groups the Torries and the ReformersAppointed Legislative council to Executive councilElected the Legislative Assembly
26THE UNREST IN LOWER CANADA French and English speaking merchants wanted different things for lower CanadaMerchants wanted to improve roads, canals and harboursImmigration caused problemsChateau Clique was encouraging immigration from great BritainIn 1832 and immigrant ship brought a deadly disease, choleraThe disease 5500 victims
27The armed Rebellion in Upper and Lower Canada An armed conflict between lower Canada and the British Colonial, power of that provinceThe political leader was Joseph PapineaThe Canadians were ready to fight on November 1837British troops charged and the Rebellions lostThe largest battle was held at St. Eustach on December 14, 1837The Rebel leader, Dr. J.Q. Chenier along with rebels diedThe British robbed and burned their villageUpper CanadaRebellion against the British colonial government in 1837 and 1838After the war of 1812 family compact owned most land “Crown Reserves” and “Protestant Clergy”The lower Canada broke out in autumn 1837 Bond Head sent all British troops to help suppress itShort Fight (less than 30 minutes) the battle finished and the rebel forces retreated1860’s former rebels compensated by the Canadian government
28FAMILY COMPACT Upper Canada has an elite called Family Compact Was a small group of powerful people in the colony of upper CanadaAlong with friends and supporters were know as ToriesDid not want Americans to be part of the government in Upper CanadaDefended tradition (The things that had always been done) and opposed changeBelieved power should be in the hands of a few capable people (themselves)Believed the church of England should be powerful in the colonyWere loyal to great Brittan and the British governmentThey had power to stop any laws passed by the legislative assemblyMost Family Compact members were British immigrants who arrived before the 1800’s
29THE REFORMERS What did they oppose? Opposed the power of the Family CompactWanted changes in government and society of Upper CanadaDivided into moderate and radical groupsIncluded some radicals who later became rebelsRobert Gurley ( ) arrived in Upper Canada in 1817His plan was to bring poor people to farm in New BritainHe sent a questionnaire famers to see hoe their progress wasHe also asked them to name thing that prevented in their townsHe criticized Family Compact
30AFTERMATH OF THE REBELLION Upper Canada was very short and disorganizedLondon government was concerned about RebellionBond Head was recalled in 1837 he was replaced with Sir George ArthurLord Durham assigned to report grievances among the colonists and find a way to appease themLord Durham’s report led to the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the province of Canada in 1840
31LORD DURHAM’S REPORT Two Major recommendations in his report are: The two colonies should become one called the United Province of CanadaThe United Colony should have a responsible governmentThe British imperial powers(?) should be sent out in writing. All other legal power(?)Would be handled by the colonies Executive council and would be advisedThe governor stayed neutral but signed things by the executive councilThe executive council was not picked from the government but was chosen by leaders of other groups (legislative assembly) this is called “Responsible government”Members of the executive council would stay in the council if half of the legislative assembly supports themPersonal InformationArrived in Quebec city as a governor general of British north America in 1838Interested in education the poor
32THE ACT OF UNION (1841)Since the Rebellion wanted a better and responsible government British passed a law called the Act of UnionBritish government acted on one of Lord Durham’s recommendationsThe act of union joined in Upper and Lower Canada as the united provinceThe two aims of the British were to control the two colonies of Canada into one and give the English people control of the newly named colony and to have a new colony with a responsible governmentThey also established English as the official language of government
33ASSIGNMENT DO NOT ANSWER THEM YET!! Copy down the following questions: What was the Act of Union and how did it help to unite the Canada?Who was Lord Durham? Why is he significant in Canadian History? How did his report help form the identity and culture of Canada?Why was their unrest in Upper and Lower Canada? How did this unrest lead to the Rebellions of ?What was the government in Upper Canada? What was the government in Lower Canada? Were they similar? Different? How so?
34Rebellions upper and lower canada 1837 & 1838 Key Events In Canadian History Which influenced The Nation We Have Today
35Background to the issue Governance in the ColonyThe GovernorsLand IssueTransportation IssueSpecial Privileges for a few people
36Governance in the Colony Colony had elected Assembly representatives from each districtMade plans for colony needing approval of Governor & CouncilsExecutive & Legislative Councils appointed from ‘Upper Class’, & weren’t bound to follow wishes of the peopleReal power was in the hand of the Governor & Councils, the people had no REAL influence
37The Governors British men appointed by English monarch Unfamiliar with local issues & conditionsDepended on the advice of their councilsUsually United Empire LoyalistsThey were wealthy & better educated so better able to govern ordinary peopleAnglican (church) should have ‘position’
38Land Issues Best land given to Family Compact/friends Exec & Leg Councilors controlled 90% of land, not farmed, would sell for a profit1/7 of land went to Anglican Church, not other religions though (clergy reserves)New settlers received only poor, uncleared farmland
39Transportation Issues Farmers needed roads to get to/from marketsMost were impassableGovt. collected taxes to build canals, mainly used to benefit merchants & Family Compact/friendsFarmers felt govt. did not grant land/$ to them for land/toolsBankers & merchants grew rich…
40Special Privileges for a Few Governor appointed all officialsCouncils, judges, sheriffs, justice of peaceCoroners, customs officers, postal officials, immigration officers & Indian Affairs officialsAs head of military he appointed 1500 officersMade land grants & spent crown $ for pensions to friendsGood jobs to Family Compact & friends
41Lower Canada (Quebec)Louis-Joseph Papineau led the Patriots against the governor & the Chateau Clique, & loss of land to growing Anglophone populationCultural conflict between French & English Cdns.Fr. dominated the Assembly, was controlled by the Br. CouncilsCreated the 92 ResolutionsSome wanted USA Republic systemFall, 1837, armed revolt failed, vs. govt. & RC church, again in 1838Papineau fled to USA, then France, returned & Pardoned in 1845
42Upper Canada (Ontario) William Lyon Mackenzie led the Reformers against the Family CompactDid not support the Constitution Act of 1791Believed in responsible govt.Demanded 2 constitutional reformsElected Legislative CouncilExecutive council responsible to AssemblyReformers were againstClergy Reserves,Land grants to the oligarchies,Influence of the Church of EnglandPower of the Banks
43REBELLIONS OF Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie The Reformers Vs. Family CompactLower CanadaLouis Joseph PapineauThe PatriotsVs. Chateau CliqueProtesting against the Oligarchies controlDesired a Responsible GovernmentWanted less Church controlAssembly had to approve taxes or no collection would occur
44Consequences of Rebellion Rebellion Losses BillLed to the Durham Report of the 1840’sFrench Assimilation into English CanadaAct of Union unites the ‘two’ CanadasAchievement of Responsible GovernmentLed to Confederation in the 1860’s
45Lord Durham’s Report Durham's Recommendations to unite Upper and Lower Canada to make the French a minorityto assimilate or anglicize the French majority in Lower Canadato grant responsible governmentConsequences of Durham's RecommendationsUpper and Lower Canada were united in 1840Responsible government was granted in 1848 leading to Confederation in 1867Created the roots of today’s French ‘separatism’
46Rebellions Losses Bill 1849 Reformers controlled the Assembly, their billsought to compensate those in what had been Lower Canada for damages that resulted from the rebellions.was controversial because the Tories objected that many of the claimants were former rebels who were against the Crown.was well received by French Canadians, but British elements opposed it so strongly that they attacked Elgin and burned the parliament building down in Montreal
47Confederation 1867The Province of Canada, (Ontario & Quebec) New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island.A system based on British ParliamentProposed limited central government balanced by provincial power.Rejected the strict application of "rep by pop.“ the senate represented regionsCalled for a two-chamber (bicameral) parliament, including a (appointed) senate and a (elected) house of commons.
48Our ThesisIf in the position of the Reformers or Patriots, a reasonable citizen would support ‘no representation = no taxes’ since a true democracy must have the citizen’s power move up to the ‘elected’ govt. officials, not from appointed officials ‘down’ to the citizens.If every ‘democracy’ ignored their citizens and gave special privileges to a few, rebellion and civil war would surely follow.Given that the rebellions led to Confederation 1867, which spawned the nation we have today, the rebels did the right thing and definitely helped to create the model of democracy that Canada represents today.