2Constitution Act of 1791The Constitution Act of 1791 gave the British colonies a new form of governmentEach colony had its own governor and elected assemblyCan you name the colonies?Governor General (Appointed by Britain)Lieutenant Governor(Appointed by Britain)Executive Council(Appointed by thegovernor)Anglophones in both Upper and Lower CanadaLegislative Council(Appointed by thegovernor)Legislative Assembly(Elected by voters)Upper Canada: Majority AnglophoneLower Canada: Majority FrancophoneOnly people who owned a certain amount of property were allowed to vote. This was mostly wealthy men.
3Colonial GovernmentAlthough voters were able to elect the members of the Legislative Assembly, it had little actual powerThe real power was held by the governor and the two councils (Executive and Legislative)These members were usually friends and relatives of the governorIn Lower Canada they were known as the Chateau CliqueIn Upper Canada they were known as the Family CompactBoth passed laws that favoured their own interestsWhat do you think of this kind of governing? Is it fair? Why or why not?
4ReformersMany of the colonists thought that this form of governing was highly unfairWhy should a British appointed governor and his friends make all the decisions?These people were called reformersWhy were they called this?They demanded that the government change the way things were runOf course, change did not happen
5Voting Today we vote by using a secret ballot This means that no one knows who someone voted for unless they choose to share that informationIn the past, however, voting was done differentlyVoters went to polling stations and voted for a candidate publiclyThis led to corruption and briberySome people tried to influence the way people votedThey could tell if they followed through or notIf they didn't they would be beat and tormentedVoting remained public until 1874
6SOAPSTone! “William Lyon Mackenzie Describes an Election Campaign” Read the following primary source in a group and complete the SOAPSTONE for itHighlight any key or important informationWe will be discussing it after – so be prepared to say something!
7Perspectives Activity You will be randomly drawing a role, it will either be from Upper Canada or Lower CanadaIt will then tell you what kind of person you are, like a farmer or merchant and provide a brief description of how your group feelsDiscuss with other people with the same role and expand on your perspective – be prepared to argue it!I will play the role of Governor General Harris and in your groups you will have to convince me that reform (change) is necessary
8Ninety-Two Resolutions By the 1830s many people had had enough with the lack of changeLouis Joseph Papineau led a group of reformers called the Patriotes in Lower CanadaIn 1834 they presented the Ninety-Two Resolutions to the assemblyThey wanted sweeping reforms put in placeThey then won 75 percent of the votes in an electionThey believed that now the Governor and Britain would have to listen to themThey waited for a response to the Resolutions until 1837All of the demands were rejected
9Rebellion in Lower Canada Papineau travelled throughout the colony urging Lower Canadians to take up arms and fightFighting finally broke out in November of 1837 at Saint- Denis with a victory for the PatriotesHowever, British forces soon overwhelmed the rebels at Saint-Charles and Saint- EustacheThe uprising had been crushedPapineau fled to the United States
10Seventh Report on Grievances The same unrest was occurring in Upper Canada tooWilliam Lyon Mackenzie led the reformers and in he issued the Seventh Report on GrievancesIt was a list of their demandsThey decided to take up arms to make sure they got what they wanted
11Rebellion in Upper Canada On December Mackenzie led 700 rebels on a march toward TorontoOnly a few were armed with rifles; most were armed with pikes and pitchforksAt the first clash with government supporters, the rebels fled to Montgomery TavernOther violent clashes broke out around the colony, howeverThey were put down by British troopsThe rebellion was over in just a few daysMackenzie fled to the United States like Papineau
12Impact of the Rebellions These two rebellions may seem to be minor eventsOnly a few hundred people took partBut they actually had a very lasting impactIn Lower Canada, the Francophone colonists felt incredibly wrongedThis feeling did not disappear with the crushing of the RebellionIn Upper Canada it became apparent that many people agreed with the goals of the reformersBritain would have to face the fact that reform was necessary, or there may be a larger rebellion or even a revolution next time
13Comics We have TWO comics to read! I will need a few volunteer to take on roles
14Homework - SOAPSTone!Read the primary source “The Upper Canadian Rebellion, 1837”Complete the SOAPSTone chart for itTo be completed and handed in with your Chapter 6 package