Planting the Seed of Nationhood 1815-1855 Why were some events in Canada’s history key in allowing us to become a nation?
Who occupied each colony in Upper and Lower Canada Lower Canada Population increased from: 250 000 in 1806 to 717 000 in 1841 Very high Birthrates among French speaking population In addition British and American immigrants settled the eastern townships that had been set aside for English speaking farmers Upper Canada Before 1812 loyalists settled upper Canada After 1812 a wave of settlers from great Brittan took their place Population Increased from: 71 000 in 1806 to 432 000 in 1841 1815 the population was 80% American born 1841 almost 50% British immigrants
Upper and Lower Canada Life in Lower Canada Male ruling society 3 major groups- French Speaking Habitants, French Speaking Professional Men, and English Speaking Merchants The French scared of Adapting to the English way of life Merchants were newcomers of lower Canada Wanted roads, and harbours-paid from government taxes Professional Men well educated, wanted to lead the colonies Saw British as cultural threat formed a party called “ parti canadiens”
3 main groups French Speaking Habitants (Tenant Farmers) – Main Concern: Scarcity of Land, Poverty, Fear of English Speaking new comers English Speaking Merchants (Rich, Powerful) – Main Concern: Infrastructure French Speaking Professional Men (Newest “Group”) – Separate French/ Canadian nation Life in Upper Canada Daily Life in Upper Canada More fields were cleared in Upper Canada Villages began to grow in places that were not convenient for farmers Kingston Developed as a British military for lake Ontario Was the largest and most important town in Upper Canada for many years York Queen’s rangers began clearing land to build a fort in 1793 In 1834, it was renamed Toronto
Services in the Towns By the 1840’s cities were installing sewer systems In the 1820’s and 1830’s started to establish volunteer fire departments Transportation Walking was often the safest and fastest way to get around Unpaved streets in towns were unpaved streets turned to mud Louis-Joseph Papineau Strong supporter of the old French order in Lower Canada Served as a officer in the military defending British North America during the war of 1812 Elected to be in the legislative assembly of Lower Canada in 1809 Leader of Parti Candien
Government of Upper and Lower Canada Government of Lower Canada Established by Constitutional act in 1791 Power limited by governors and councils Members of legislative councils were voted in for life English concerns were usually different from French concerns The group which the most power was Chateau Clique Believed that power should be in hands of a few capable people Wanted the Roman Catholic church to stay power Government of Upper Canada In 1830 government remained the same as the constitutional act in 1791 Two political groups the Torries and the Reformers Appointed Legislative council to Executive council Elected the Legislative Assembly
The Unrest in Lower Canada French and English speaking merchants wanted different things for lower Canada Merchants wanted to improve roads, canals and harbours Immigration caused problems Chateau Clique was encouraging immigration from great Britain In 1832 and immigrant ship brought a deadly disease, cholera The disease 5500 victims
The armed Rebellion in Upper and Lower Canada Lower Canada An armed conflict between lower Canada and the British Colonial, power of that province The political leader was Joseph Papinea The Canadians were ready to fight on November 1837 British troops charged and the Rebellions lost The largest battle was held at St. Eustach on December 14, 1837 The Rebel leader, Dr. J.Q. Chenier along with rebels died The British robbed and burned their village Upper Canada Rebellion against the British colonial government in 1837 and 1838 After the war of 1812 family compact owned most land “Crown Reserves” and “Protestant Clergy” The lower Canada broke out in autumn 1837 Bond Head sent all British troops to help suppress it Short Fight (less than 30 minutes) the battle finished and the rebel forces retreated 1860’s former rebels compensated by the Canadian government
Family Compact Upper Canada has an elite called Family Compact Was a small group of powerful people in the colony of upper Canada Along with friends and supporters were know as Tories Did not want Americans to be part of the government in Upper Canada Defended tradition (The things that had always been done) and opposed change Believed power should be in the hands of a few capable people (themselves) Believed the church of England should be powerful in the colony Were loyal to great Brittan and the British government They had power to stop any laws passed by the legislative assembly Most Family Compact members were British immigrants who arrived before the 1800’s
The Reformers What did they oppose? Opposed the power of the Family Compact Wanted changes in government and society of Upper Canada Divided into moderate and radical groups Included some radicals who later became rebels Robert Gurley (1778-1863) arrived in Upper Canada in 1817 His plan was to bring poor people to farm in New Britain He sent a questionnaire famers to see hoe their progress was He also asked them to name thing that prevented in their towns He criticized Family Compact
Aftermath of the Rebellion Upper Canada was very short and disorganized London government was concerned about Rebellion Bond Head was recalled in 1837 he was replaced with Sir George Arthur Lord Durham assigned to report grievances among the colonists and find a way to appease them Lord Durham’s report led to the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the province of Canada in 1840
Lord Durham’s Report Two Major recommendations in his report are: 1.The two colonies should become one called the United Province of Canada 2.The United Colony should have a responsible government The British imperial poers(?) should be sent out in writing. All other legal poer(?) Would be handled by the colonies Executive council and would be advised The governor stayed neutral but signed things by the executive council The executive council was not picked from the government but was chosen by leaders of other groups (legislative assembly) this is called “Responsible government” Members of the executive council would stay in the council if half of the legislative assembly supports them Personal Information 1792-1840 Arrived in Quebec city as a governor general of British north America in 1838 Interested in education the poor
The Act of Union (1841) Since the Rebellion wanted a better and responsible government British passed a law called the Act of Union British government acted on one of Lord Durham’s recommendations The act of union joined in Upper and Lower Canada as the united province The two aims of the British were to control the two colonies of Canada into one and give the English people control of the newly named colony and to have a new colony with a responsible government They also established English as the official language of government
Assignment Copy down the following questions: 1.What was the Act of Union and how did it help to unite the Canadas? 2.Who was Lord Durham? Why is he significant in Canadian History? How did his report help form the identity and culture of Canada? 3.Why was their unrest in Upper and Lower Canada? How did this unrest lead to the Rebellions of 1837-38? 4.What was the government in Upper Canada? What was the government in Lower Canada? Were they similar? Different? How so? DO NOT ANSWER THEM YET!!
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