Presentation on theme: "REBELLIONS UPPER & LOWER CANADA 1837 & 1838 Key Events In Canadian History Which influenced The Nation We Have Today."— Presentation transcript:
REBELLIONS UPPER & LOWER CANADA 1837 & 1838 Key Events In Canadian History Which influenced The Nation We Have Today
Background to the Issue Governance in the Colony The Governors Land Issue Transportation Issue Special Privileges for a Few People
Governance in the Colony Colony had elected Assembly representatives from each district Made plans for colony needing approval of Governor & Councils Executive & Legislative Councils appointed from ‘Upper Class’, & weren’t bound to follow wishes of the people Real power was in the hand of the Governor & Councils, the people had no REAL influence
The Governors British men appointed by English monarch Unfamiliar with local issues & conditions Depended on the advice of their councils Usually United Empire Loyalists They were wealthy & better educated so better able to govern ordinary people Anglican (church) should have ‘position’
Land Issues Best land given to Family Compact/friends Exec & Leg Councilors controlled 90% of land, not farmed, would sell for a profit 1/7 of land went to Anglican Church, not other religions though (clergy reserves) New settlers received only poor, uncleared farmland
Transportation Issues Farmers needed roads to get to/from markets Most were impassable Govt. collected taxes to build canals, mainly used to benefit merchants & Family Compact/friends Farmers felt govt. did not grant land/$ to them for land/tools Bankers & merchants grew rich… Farmers needed roads to get to/from markets Most were impassable Govt. collected taxes to build canals, mainly used to benefit merchants & Family Compact/friends Farmers felt govt. did not grant land/$ to them for land/tools Bankers & merchants grew rich…
Special Privileges for a Few Governor appointed all officials –Councils, judges, sheriffs, justice of peace –Coroners, customs officers, postal officials, immigration officers & Indian Affairs officials As head of military he appointed 1500 officers Made land grants & spent crown $ for pensions to friends Good jobs to Family Compact & friends
Louis-Joseph Papineau led the Patriots against the governor & the Chateau Clique, & loss of land to growing Anglophone population Cultural conflict between French & English Cdns. Fr. dominated the Assembly, was controlled by the Br. Councils Created the 92 Resolutions Some wanted USA Republic system Fall, 1837, armed revolt failed, vs. govt. & RC church, again in 1838 Papineau fled to USA, then France, returned & Pardoned in 1845 Lower Canada (Quebec)
Upper Canada (Ontario) William Lyon Mackenzie led the Reformers against the Family Compact Did not support the Constitution Act of 1791 Believed in responsible govt. Demanded 2 constitutional reforms –Elected Legislative Council –Executive council responsible to Assembly Reformers were against –Clergy Reserves, –Land grants to the oligarchies, –Influence of the Church of England –Power of the Banks
Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie The Reformers Vs. Family Compact Lower Canada Louis Joseph Papineau The Patriots Vs. Chateau Clique Lower Canada Louis Joseph Papineau The Patriots Vs. Chateau Clique ۞Protesting against the Oligarchies control ۞Desired a Responsible Government ۞Wanted less Church control ۞Assembly had to approve taxes or no collection would occur Rebellions of Rebellions of
Consequences of Rebellion ۞Rebellion Losses Bill ۞Led to the Durham Report of the 1840’s ۞French Assimilation into English Canada ۞Act of Union unites the ‘two’ Canadas ۞Achievement of Responsible Government ۞Led to Confederation in the 1860’s
Lord Durham’s Report Lord Durham’s Report Durham's Recommendations to unite Upper and Lower Canada to make the French a minority to assimilate or anglicize the French majority in Lower Canada to grant responsible government Consequences of Durham's Recommendations Upper and Lower Canada were united in 1840 Responsible government was granted in 1848 leading to Confederation in 1867 Created the roots of today’s French ‘separatism’
Rebellions Losses Bill 1849 Reformers controlled the Assembly, their bill; sought to compensate those in what had been Lower Canada for damages that resulted from the rebellions. was controversial because the Tories objected that many of the claimants were former rebels who were against the Crown. was well received by French Canadians, but British elements opposed it so strongly that they attacked Elgin and burned the parliament building down in Montreal.
Confederation 1867 The Province of Canada, (Ontario & Quebec) New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. A system based on British Parliament Proposed limited central government balanced by provincial power. Rejected the strict application of "rep by pop.“ the senate represented regions Called for a two-chamber (bicameral) parliament, including a (appointed) senate and a (elected) house of commons.
Our Thesis If in the position of the Reformers or Patriots, a reasonable citizen would support ‘no representation = no taxes’ since a true democracy must have the citizen’s power move up to the ‘elected’ govt. officials, not from appointed officials ‘down’ to the citizens. If every ‘democracy’ ignored their citizens and gave special privileges to a few, rebellion and civil war would surely follow. Given that the rebellions led to Confederation 1867, which spawned the nation we have today, the rebels did the right thing and definitely helped to create the model of democracy that Canada represents today.