1 REBELLIONS UPPER & LOWER CANADA 1837 & 1838 Key Events In Canadian History Which influenced The Nation We Have Today
2 Background to the Issue Governance in the ColonyThe GovernorsLand IssueTransportation IssueSpecial Privileges for a Few People
3 Governance in the Colony Colony had elected Assembly representatives from each districtMade plans for colony needing approval of Governor & CouncilsExecutive & Legislative Councils appointed from ‘Upper Class’, & weren’t bound to follow wishes of the peopleReal power was in the hand of the Governor & Councils, the people had no REAL influence
4 The Governors British men appointed by English monarch Unfamiliar with local issues & conditionsDepended on the advice of their councilsUsually United Empire LoyalistsThey were wealthy & better educated so better able to govern ordinary peopleAnglican (church) should have ‘position’
5 Land Issues Best land given to Family Compact/friends Exec & Leg Councilors controlled 90% of land, not farmed, would sell for a profit1/7 of land went to Anglican Church, not other religions though (clergy reserves)New settlers received only poor, uncleared farmland
6 Transportation Issues Farmers needed roads to get to/from marketsMost were impassableGovt. collected taxes to build canals, mainly used to benefit merchants & Family Compact/friendsFarmers felt govt. did not grant land/$ to them for land/toolsBankers & merchants grew rich…
7 Special Privileges for a Few Governor appointed all officialsCouncils, judges, sheriffs, justice of peaceCoroners, customs officers, postal officials, immigration officers & Indian Affairs officialsAs head of military he appointed 1500 officersMade land grants & spent crown $ for pensions to friendsGood jobs to Family Compact & friends
8 Lower Canada (Quebec)Louis-Joseph Papineau led the Patriots against the governor & the Chateau Clique, & loss of land to growing Anglophone populationCultural conflict between French & English Cdns.Fr. dominated the Assembly, was controlled by the Br. CouncilsCreated the 92 ResolutionsSome wanted USA Republic systemFall, 1837, armed revolt failed, vs. govt. & RC church, again in 1838Papineau fled to USA, then France, returned & Pardoned in 1845
9 Upper Canada (Ontario) William Lyon Mackenzie led the Reformers against the Family CompactDid not support the Constitution Act of 1791Believed in responsible govt.Demanded 2 constitutional reformsElected Legislative CouncilExecutive council responsible to AssemblyReformers were againstClergy Reserves,Land grants to the oligarchies,Influence of the Church of EnglandPower of the Banks
10 William Lyon Mackenzie Rebellions ofUpper CanadaWilliam Lyon MackenzieThe ReformersVs. Family CompactLower CanadaLouis Joseph PapineauThe PatriotsVs. Chateau CliqueProtesting against the Oligarchies controlDesired a Responsible GovernmentWanted less Church controlAssembly had to approve taxes or no collection would occur
11 Consequences of Rebellion Rebellion Losses BillLed to the Durham Report of the 1840’sFrench Assimilation into English CanadaAct of Union unites the ‘two’ CanadasAchievement of Responsible GovernmentLed to Confederation in the 1860’s
12 Lord Durham’s Report Durham's Recommendations to unite Upper and Lower Canada to make the French a minorityto assimilate or anglicize the French majority in Lower Canadato grant responsible governmentConsequences of Durham's RecommendationsUpper and Lower Canada were united in 1840Responsible government was granted in 1848 leading to Confederation in 1867Created the roots of today’s French ‘separatism’
13 Rebellions Losses Bill 1849 Reformers controlled the Assembly, their bill;sought to compensate those in what had been Lower Canada for damages that resulted from the rebellions.was controversial because the Tories objected that many of the claimants were former rebels who were against the Crown.was well received by French Canadians, but British elements opposed it so strongly that they attacked Elgin and burned the parliament building down in Montreal.
14 Confederation 1867The Province of Canada, (Ontario & Quebec) New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island.A system based on British ParliamentProposed limited central government balanced by provincial power.Rejected the strict application of "rep by pop.“ the senate represented regionsCalled for a two-chamber (bicameral) parliament, including a (appointed) senate and a (elected) house of commons.
15 Our ThesisIf in the position of the Reformers or Patriots, a reasonable citizen would support ‘no representation = no taxes’ since a true democracy must have the citizen’s power move up to the ‘elected’ govt. officials, not from appointed officials ‘down’ to the citizens.If every ‘democracy’ ignored their citizens and gave special privileges to a few, rebellion and civil war would surely follow.Given that the rebellions led to Confederation 1867, which spawned the nation we have today, the rebels did the right thing and definitely helped to create the model of democracy that Canada represents today.