Presentation on theme: "Life in Upper & Lower Canada 1815-1855 Rebellions of Upper & Lower Canada."— Presentation transcript:
Life in Upper & Lower Canada Rebellions of Upper & Lower Canada
Geography of Upper and Lower Canada Borders what is now New Brunswick; northeast area of United States; & Great lakes Upper Canada- Southern Ontario Lower Canada- Quebec and Newfoundland Upper and Lower Canada both British Colonies Lower Canada mainly French speaking “Canadiens” Upper Canada mainly English speaking people
Map of Upper & Lower Canada
4 Main Groups in Lower Canada: Habitant: (French) tenant farmer; rent land; poor Seigneur: (French) land owner; wealthy and powerful Merchant: (English) business owner; fur & timber industry; wealthy and powerful Professionals: (French & English) doctors, lawyers, etc.; middle class; seeking democracy
Louis-Joseph Papineau Lower Canada wealthy seigneur and member of the Legislative Assembly Had strong support of French land owning and political elite Conservative- favored doing things traditional & slow way Served as officer in militia by defending British North America from Americans during war of 1812 Elected speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada Became leader of the Parti Canadien political party
Government in Lower Canada Governor-British appointed Legislative Council- English-speaking merchants and seigneurs; friends of Governor; appointed not elected; veto power Legislative Assembly voted by citizens Two political parties dominated- Chateau Clique, Parti Canadien (Parti Patriote) Chateau Clique- Wealthy British and French who supported British rule Parti Canadien- Wealthy and poor French- early separatists
Government in Upper & Lower Canada- Constitutional Act, 1791
Unrest in Lower Canada British merchants wanted to increase taxes for canals, harbors and roads for merchant use- few roads were built to help farmers Increased immigration from Great Britain began to threaten French culture and language 1832, immigrant ship brought disease cholera, killed 5500 Legislative assembly(French-speaking) hard to make laws 1836, crops failed, Canadians face starvation 1837, economic depression, English merchants blamed
The Armed Rebellion In Lower Canada British Army versus Patriote Army (Rebels) Began on November 23, 1837 at St. Denis; rebel victory Rebels built a fortress at St. Charles to fight the British but lost there and later at Saint-Eustache – Baker's Farm – Lacolle – Odelltown & BeauharnoisSaint-EustacheBaker's FarmLacolleOdelltownBeauharnois Pappineau fled to U.S After all the fighting 12 were hung 58 were sent to Australia and 12 hundred were set free.
Life in upper Canada Pioneer homestead start from scratch and forced native inland Most habitant were subsistence farmers meaning they only farm for their family Life in towns was easier Town were hubs Town supplied a people with basic service Transportation mostly walking
Government of upper Canada Lieutenant(British appointed) highest ranking Legislative and Executive Council 2nd highest Executive and Legislative dominated government business and social life Legislative assembly (Elected by voters) 3rd highest Had little power law has to be approved by council and Lieutenant
Family Compact Small group of powerful people in upper Canada As well as friends and supporters known as Tories Didn’t want US government to be part of Canadian government Defended tradition Believed power should be in the hands of few capable people (themselves) Believed Church of England should have power Loyal to Great Britain
Who are the reformers,and what did they oppose? Opposed the power of family compact Wanted changes in government and society of upper Canada Divided into moderate and radical groups. Robert Gourlay - plan to bring people from Britain to farm in upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie , established “the colonial advocate” a newspaper that spoke out on land problems, power of family compact and question to who was a upper Canadian Sir Francis Bond Head - Appointed Lieutenant - governor of Upper Canada in 1835, was Reformer for short period but rejected
Armed Rebellion of Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie turned people against government in Northern Toronto Radicals wanted upper Canada like the American government December 5 Mackenzie led 800 men down Yonge street in Toronto In the United States Sir Francis bond head tried to raise an army to liberate upper Canada giving 120 hectares of land for whoever would join him Caught for breaking legal neutrality between Canada and the US jail 11 months
Aftermath of the rebellion Lower Canada became even worse than before the rebellion Upper Canada afraid to speak out because moderate reformers were branded as rebels Prime minister decided to send Lord Durham as governor general
Lord Durham And his Report John George Lambton (Lord Durham) sent to Quebec City as governor general. Suggested solutions for rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. Wrote “report on Affairs of British Canada” also known as Durham report Named “Radical Jack” in British House of Commons because of radical policies. Upper and Lower Canada unite and become one colony, called United Province of Canada - would unite English speaking people, would give them majority in gov’t New colony should have responsible government - Local powers handled by colony: Imperial powers written, Governor advised by Executive Council only.
The Act of Union, 1841 Aim: create single government, establish English as official language Was first step toward Confederation Canada was split as Canada West (Upper Canada) and Canada East (Lower Canada, Ontario) In 1847, Lord Elgin became governor Executive Council/Cabinet got most power and are responsible to Legislative Assembly Many members formed political parties to achieve power. Nova Scotia:1847, New Brunswick: 1854, Newfoundland:1855, Prince Edward Island: Received responsible gov’t in these years.
Bibliography Unknown author.The Canadas. Retrieved May 30, 2007 from the internet:http://www.answers.com/to pic/the-canadas Canada Revisited textbook-pages