Presentation on theme: "Life in Upper & Lower Canada"— Presentation transcript:
1Life in Upper & Lower Canada 1815-1855 Rebellions of Upper & Lower Canada
2Geography of Upper and Lower Canada Borders what is now New Brunswick; northeast area of United States; & Great lakesUpper Canada- Southern OntarioLower Canada- Quebec and NewfoundlandUpper and Lower Canada both British ColoniesLower Canada mainly French speaking “Canadiens”Upper Canada mainly English speaking people
44 Main Groups in Lower Canada: Habitant: (French) tenant farmer; rent land; poorSeigneur: (French) land owner; wealthy and powerfulMerchant: (English) business owner; fur & timber industry; wealthy and powerfulProfessionals: (French & English) doctors, lawyers, etc.; middle class; seeking democracy
5Louis-Joseph Papineau Lower Canada wealthy seigneur and member of the Legislative AssemblyHad strong support of French land owning and political eliteConservative- favored doing things traditional & slow wayServed as officer in militia by defending British North America from Americans during war of 1812Elected speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Lower CanadaBecame leader of the Parti Canadien political party
6Government in Lower Canada Governor-British appointedLegislative Council- English-speaking merchants and seigneurs; friends of Governor; appointed not elected; veto powerLegislative Assembly voted by citizensTwo political parties dominated- Chateau Clique, Parti Canadien (Parti Patriote)Chateau Clique- Wealthy British and French who supported British ruleParti Canadien- Wealthy and poor French- early separatists
7Government in Upper & Lower Canada- Constitutional Act, 1791
8Unrest in Lower CanadaBritish merchants wanted to increase taxes for canals, harbors and roads for merchant use- few roads were built to help farmersIncreased immigration from Great Britain began to threaten French culture and language1832, immigrant ship brought disease cholera, killed 5500Legislative assembly(French-speaking) hard to make laws1836, crops failed, Canadians face starvation1837, economic depression, English merchants blamed
9The Armed Rebellion In Lower Canada British Army versus Patriote Army (Rebels)Began on November 23, 1837 at St. Denis; rebel victoryRebels built a fortress at St. Charles to fight the British but lost there and later at Saint-Eustache – Baker's Farm – Lacolle – Odelltown & BeauharnoisPappineau fled to U.SAfter all the fighting 12 were hung 58 were sent to Australia and 12 hundred were set free.
10Life in upper CanadaPioneer homestead start from scratch and forced native inlandMost habitant were subsistence farmers meaning they only farm for their familyLife in towns was easierTown were hubsTown supplied a people with basic serviceTransportation mostly walking
11Government of upper Canada Lieutenant(British appointed) highest rankingLegislative and Executive Council 2nd highestExecutive and Legislative dominated government business and social lifeLegislative assembly (Elected by voters) 3rd highestHad little power law has to be approved by council and Lieutenant
12Family Compact Small group of powerful people in upper Canada As well as friends and supporters known as ToriesDidn’t want US government to be part of Canadian governmentDefended traditionBelieved power should be in the hands of few capable people (themselves)Believed Church of England should have powerLoyal to Great Britain
13Who are the reformers,and what did they oppose? Opposed the power of family compactWanted changes in government and society of upper CanadaDivided into moderate and radical groups.Robert Gourlay - plan to bring people from Britain to farm in upper CanadaWilliam Lyon Mackenzie , established “the colonial advocate” a newspaper that spoke out on land problems, power of family compact and question to who was a upper CanadianSir Francis Bond Head - Appointed Lieutenant - governor of Upper Canada in 1835, was Reformer for short period but rejected
14Armed Rebellion of Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie turned people against government in Northern TorontoRadicals wanted upper Canada like the American governmentDecember 5 Mackenzie led 800 men down Yonge street in TorontoIn the United States Sir Francis bond head tried to raise an army to liberate upper Canada giving 120 hectares of land for whoever would join himCaught for breaking legal neutrality between Canada and the US jail 11 months
15Aftermath of the rebellion Lower Canada became even worse than before the rebellionUpper Canada afraid to speak out because moderate reformers were branded as rebelsPrime minister decided to send Lord Durham as governor general
16Lord Durham And his Report John George Lambton (Lord Durham) sent to Quebec City as governor general.Suggested solutions for rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada.Wrote “report on Affairs of British Canada” also known as Durham reportNamed “Radical Jack” in British House of Commons because of radical policies.Upper and Lower Canada unite and become one colony, called United Province of Canada - would unite English speaking people, would give them majority in gov’tNew colony should have responsible government - Local powers handled by colony: Imperial powers written, Governor advised by Executive Council only.
17The Act of Union, 1841Aim: create single government, establish English as official languageWas first step toward ConfederationCanada was split as Canada West (Upper Canada) and Canada East (Lower Canada, Ontario)In 1847, Lord Elgin became governorExecutive Council/Cabinet got most power and are responsible to Legislative AssemblyMany members formed political parties to achieve power.Nova Scotia:1847, New Brunswick: 1854, Newfoundland:1855, Prince Edward Island: Received responsible gov’t in these years.
18BibliographyUnknown author.The Canadas. Retrieved May 30, 2007 from the internet:http://www.answers.com/to pic/the-canadasCanada Revisited textbook-pages