1 Rebellion & reform- Upper & Lower Canada 1815-1855 Chapter 1 & 2- Class NotesRebellions of Upper & Lower CanadaBritish North AmericaResponsible Government
2 Unit objectives:Identify the geography, way of life, concerns & interests of the peoples of Upper (U/C) & Lower Canada (L/C);Explain the concepts of “responsible” and “representative” government;Identify & explain the concepts of political protest, reform, rebellion, & resolution;Account for the events leading up to and including the rebellions in the U/C & L/C;Compare and contrast the concerns of the peoples of U/C & L/C;
3 More Unit objectives:Examine the roles of Mackenzie, Papineau, Howe, Fontaine, Baldwin, Durham, & Elgin in the rebellions & aftermath;Compare & contract the Constitutional Act of 1791 & Act of Union, 1841;Explain & assess the Durham Report & its recommendationsCompare & contrast the governments of the 18th & 19th centuries with Canada todayFormative Evaluation: Will be ongoing an include C.A.R.E.S connections and assessments, various exit slips, and critical thinking diagramsSummative Evaluation: Unit will be concluded by a an essay-format test that draws off these learning objectives.....the week of March 2nd
4 Creating a T-Chart Organizer: We will create an on going T-Chart to help organize your notes- other Graphic Organizers will all be offered as we move along!T-Chart: Compare & Contrast/Similarities & DifferencesConcepts compared are Upper Canada (UC) & Lower Canada (LC)Similarities & Differences:1. Geography- Human & Physical2. Government-U/C & L/C3. People- Way of Life & Background4. Concerns- Political/Social/Economic5. Family Compact & Chateau Clique6. Reformers- Papineau & Mackenzie7. Aftermath
5 I. Geography of Upper and Lower Canada Borders what is now New Brunswick; northeast area of United States; & Great lakesUpper Canada- Southern OntarioLower Canada- Quebec and NewfoundlandRemember- “Up” the river and “down” the riverUpper and Lower Canada both British ColoniesCreated by Constitutional Act, 1791Lower Canada mainly French speaking “Canadiens”Upper Canada mainly English speaking people
6 Map of Upper & Lower Canada Copy Diagram- next page…..unless you still have yourMap of Canada from Term 1-that I told you to keep!
10 Government in Upper Canada Continued..... Governor-British appointedLegislative Council- English-speaking merchants & land owners; friends of Governor; appointed not elected; veto powerLegislative Assembly- voted by citizens- (male property owners) government was representativeTwo political parties dominated:Family Compact- Wealthy British Tories (conservatives)Reformers- Intellectuals & professionals
11 Government in Lower Canada Governor-British appointedLegislative Council- ALL English-speaking merchants and seigneurs; friends of Governor; appointed not elected; veto powerLegislative Assembly voted by citizens- representativeTwo political parties dominated- Chateau Clique, Parti Canadien (Parti Patriote)Chateau Clique- Wealthy British and French who supported British rule; true power brokersParti Canadien- Wealthy and poor French; early separatists; intellectuals & professionals; unhappy with power
12 GOVERNMENT OF UPPER & LOWER CANADA- SUMMARY Government of Lower CanadaEstablished by Constitutional act in 1791Power limited by governors and councilsMembers of legislative councils were voted in for lifeEnglish concerns were usually different from French concernsThe group with the most power was Chateau CliqueBelieved that power should be in hands of a few capable peopleWanted the Roman Catholic church to stay powerGovernment of Upper CanadaIn 1830 government remained the same as the constitutional act in 1791Two political groups the Tories and the ReformersAppointed Legislative council to Executive councilElected the Legislative AssemblyThe group with the most power was the Family Compact
14 PEOPLE OF LOWER CANADA? Lower Canada Population increased from: in 1806 to in 1841 (under 3x’s)Very high birth rates among French speaking populationIn addition British and American immigrants settled the eastern townships that had been set aside for English speaking farmersBritain, British rule and traditions were a direct threat to their cultural existenceHabitant: (French) tenant farmer; rent land; poorSeigneur: (French) land owner; wealthy and powerfulMerchant: (English) business owner; fur & timber industry; wealthy and powerfulProfessionals: (French & English) doctors, lawyers, etc.; middle class; seeking democracy
15 CONCERNS in Lower Canada British merchants wanted to increase taxes for canals, harbors and roads for merchant use- few roads were built to help farmersIncreased immigration from Great Britain began to threaten French culture and language1832, immigrant ship brought disease cholera, killed 5500Legislative assembly(French-speaking) hard to make laws1836- crops failed- Canadians face starvation1837- economic depression- English merchants blamed
16 PEOPLE OF UPPER CANADA. Upper Canada Before 1812 Loyalists- Pro British settled upper CanadaAfter 1812 a wave of settlers from great Great Britain Great Migration took their place- from Ireland, Wales, Scotland, EnglandBrought virtues of limiting absolute power and importance of parliament democracy in making decisionsPopulation increased from: in 1806 to in 1841 (almost 6x’s)Pioneer homestead start from scratch and forced native inland – new farms evolvedMost inhabitants were subsistence farmers meaning they only farm for their familyMain towns- Kingston & York-was renamed TorontoNeed for transportation – roads, canals
17 CONCERNS in upper Canada Responsible government was the major concern!Continued immigration to increase the English presence in CanadaNew immigrants from Great Britain bringing values of parliamentary democracyReduction in the role of Church of England in taxes and affairsReducing the power of values of traditionalism and conservatismStronger voice for Elected AssemblyReduce voice for the Family CompactNo veto powers
18 Peoples' history of canada Rebellion & Reform- episode 7 The Angry Men:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yEwZsar9W8khttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wHvMJGZzc281. What role did William Lyon Mackenzie King, Louis Joseph Papineau, & Joseph Howe play in the movement for reform in B.N.A. Colonies during the 1830`s?2. What did Mackenzie mean by the term Family Compact? Why did he oppose it?3. Did this type of group exist in other B.N.A. colonies as well?B-ritishN-orthA-merica
20 FAMILY COMPACT Small group of powerful people in Upper Canada As well as friends and supporters known as ToriesDidn’t want US government to be part of Canadian governmentDefended tradition and conservative valuesBelieved power should be in the hands of few capable people (themselves)They had power to stop any laws passed by the legislative assemblyBelieved Church of England should have powerLoyal to Great Britain concept of monarchy rule
21 Mackenzie & Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie led the Reformers against the Family CompactDid not support the Constitution Act of 1791Believed in responsible govt.Demanded 2 constitutional reformsElected Legislative CouncilExecutive council responsible to AssemblyReformers were againstClergy Reserves,Land grants to the oligarchies,Influence of the Church of EnglandPower of the Banks
22 Armed Rebellion of Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie turned people against government in Northern TorontoUsed newspaper Colonial Advocate to challenge governmentRadicals wanted upper Canada like the American governmentDecember 5, 1837 Mackenzie led 800 men down Yonge street in TorontoIn the United States Sir Francis bond head tried to raise an army to liberate upper Canada giving 120 hectares of land for whoever would join himCaught for breaking legal neutrality between Canada and the US- jailed 11 months
23 Papineau & Lower Canada Louis-Joseph Papineau was Legislative Assembly member & leader- and wealthy seigneur official who led the Parti Patriote reformersHad strong support of French land owning and political eliteStrong supporter of the old French order in Lower Canada- also Republican style governmentLed cultural conflict between French & English dominated the Assembly, CouncilsCreated the 92 Resolutions- making government more respectful of cultural differencesStarted revolt in 1837 & 1838Papineau fled to USA, then France, returned & Pardoned in 1845
24 THE UNREST IN LOWER CANADA French and English speaking merchants wanted different things for lower CanadaMerchants wanted to improve roads, canals and harboursImmigration caused problemsChateau Clique was encouraging immigration from great BritainIn 1832 and immigrant ship brought a deadly disease, choleraThe disease 5500 victims
25 The Armed Rebellion In Lower Canada British Army versus Patriote Army (Rebels)Began on November 23, 1837 at St. Denis; rebel victoryRebels built a fortress at St. Charles to fight the British but lost there and later at Saint-Eustache – Baker's Farm – Lacolle – Odelltown & BeauharnoisPapineau fled to U.SAfter all the fighting 12 were hanged 58 were sent to Australia and 12 hundred were set free.
26 The armed Rebellion in Upper and Lower Canada An armed conflict between lower Canada and the British Colonial, power of that provinceThe political leader was Joseph PapineaThe Canadians were ready to fight on November 1837British troops charged and the Rebellions lostThe largest battle was held at St. Eustach on December 14, 1837The Rebel leader, Dr. J.Q. Chenier along with rebels diedThe British robbed and burned their villageUpper CanadaRebellion against the British colonial government in 1837 and 1838After the war of 1812 family compact owned most land “Crown Reserves” and “Protestant Clergy”The lower Canada broke out in autumn 1837 Bond Head sent all British troops to help suppress itShort Fight (less than 30 minutes) the battle finished and the rebel forces retreated1860’s former rebels compensated by the Canadian government
27 Peoples' history of canada Rebellion & Reform- episode 7 Horrible Year:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yEwZsar9W8khttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wHvMJGZzc281. What were the two competing parties in Montreal in the 1830’s?2. Why did the struggle between them frequently take a violent form?3. What cause the cholera outbreak in 1832?4. What methods did local authorities take to control the disease?
28 The aftermath- lord durham & his report- act of union
29 Aftermath of the rebellion Lower Canada became even worse than before the rebellionUpper Canada afraid to speak out because moderate reformers were branded as rebelsPrime minister decided to send Lord Durham as Governor GeneralUpper Canada was very short and disorganizedLondon government was concerned about RebellionBond Head was recalled in 1837 he was replaced with Sir George ArthurLord Durham was assigned to report grievances among the colonists and find a way to appease themLord Durham’s report led to the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the province of Canada in 1840
30 Lord Durham And his Report John George Lambton (Lord Durham) sent to Quebec City as governor general.Suggested solutions for rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada.Wrote “report on Affairs of British Canada” also known as Durham report"[In Lower Canada] I expected to find a contest between a government and its people: I found two nations warring in the bosom of a single state" Lord DurhamRecommended assimilating the French Canadians — whom he called "a people with no literature and no history"Named “Radical Jack” in British House of Commons because of radical policies.Upper and Lower Canada unite and become one colony, called United Province of Canada - would unite English speaking people, would give them majority in gov’tNew colony should have responsible government - Local powers handled by colony: Imperial powers written, Governor advised by Executive Council only.
32 LORD DURHAM’S REPORT Two Major recommendations in his report are: The two colonies should become one called the United Province of CanadaThe United Colony should have a responsible governmentThe British imperial powers(?) should be sent out in writing. All other legal power(?)Would be handled by the colonies Executive council and would be advisedThe governor stayed neutral but signed things by the executive councilThe executive council was not picked from the government but was chosen by leaders of other groups (legislative assembly) this is called “Responsible government”Members of the executive council would stay in the council if half of the legislative assembly supports themPersonal InformationArrived in Quebec city as a governor general of British north America in 1838Interested in education the poor
33 The Act of Union, 1841Aim: create single government, establish English as official languageWas first step toward ConfederationCanada was split as Canada West (Upper Canada) and Canada East (Lower Canada, Ontario)In 1847, Lord Elgin became governorExecutive Council/Cabinet got most power and are responsible to Legislative AssemblyMany members formed political parties to achieve power.Nova Scotia:1847, New Brunswick: 1854, Newfoundland:1855, Prince Edward Island: Received responsible gov’t in these years.
34 II. Government in united canada- Act of union, 1840 Copy Diagram- next page
36 THE ACT OF UNION (1841)Since the Rebellion wanted a better and responsible government British passed a law called the Act of UnionBritish government acted on one of Lord Durham’s recommendationsThe act of union joined in Upper and Lower Canada as the united provinceThe two aims of the British were to control the two colonies of Canada into one and give the English people control of the newly named colony and to have a new colony with a responsible governmentThey also established English as the official language of government
37 Peoples' history of canada Rebellion & Reform- episode 7 Union of the Canadas:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yEwZsar9W8khttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wHvMJGZzc281. What two recommendations did Lord Durham make for the colonies?2. What was the disagreement between Haliburton & Howe?How did the settle their differences?3. What problem did Lafontaine face and how did Baldwin help him solve it?
38 Rebellions upper and lower canada 1837 & 1838 Key Events In Canadian History Which influenced The Nation We Have Today
39 SUMMARY: Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie The Reformers Vs. Family CompactLower CanadaLouis Joseph PapineauThe PatriotsVs. Chateau CliqueProtesting against the Oligarchies controlDesired a Responsible GovernmentWanted less Church controlAssembly had to approve taxes or no collection would occur
40 Lord Durham’s Report Durham's Recommendations to unite Upper and Lower Canada to make the French a minorityto assimilate or anglicize the French majority in Lower Canadato grant responsible governmentConsequences of Durham's RecommendationsUpper and Lower Canada were united in 1840Responsible government was granted in 1848 leading to Confederation in 1867Created the roots of today’s French ‘separatism’
41 Rebellions Losses Bill 1849 Reformers controlled the Assembly, their billsought to compensate those in what had been Lower Canada for damages that resulted from the rebellions.was controversial because the Tories objected that many of the claimants were former rebels who were against the Crown.was well received by French Canadians, but British elements opposed it so strongly that they attacked Elgin and burned the parliament building down in Montreal
42 Confederation 1867The Province of Canada, (Ontario & Quebec) New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island- 1867A system based on British ParliamentProposed limited central government balanced by provincial power“Rep by pop” House of Commons and the Senate represented regionsCalled for a two-chamber (bicameral) parliament, including a (appointed) senate and a (elected) house of commons.
43 Copy Diagram- next page Government in Canada- British north America act, 1867 (Canada act, 1867)Copy Diagram- next page
46 post unit essay Test questions: Copy down the following questions:What was the Act of Union and how did it help to unite the Canada?Who was Lord Durham? Why is he significant in Canadian History? How did his report help form the identity and culture of Canada?Why was their unrest in Upper and Lower Canada? How did this unrest lead to the Rebellions of ?What was the government in Upper Canada? What was the government in Lower Canada? Were they similar? Different? How so?Compare and contrast government as established by the Constitutional Act, Act of Union, and BNA.