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Rebellion & reform- Upper & Lower Canada

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1 Rebellion & reform- Upper & Lower Canada 1815-1855
Chapter 1 & 2- Class Notes Rebellions of Upper & Lower Canada British North America Responsible Government

2 Unit objectives: Identify the geography, way of life, concerns & interests of the peoples of Upper (U/C) & Lower Canada (L/C); Explain the concepts of “responsible” and “representative” government; Identify & explain the concepts of political protest, reform, rebellion, & resolution; Account for the events leading up to and including the rebellions in the U/C & L/C; Compare and contrast the concerns of the peoples of U/C & L/C;

3 More Unit objectives: Examine the roles of Mackenzie, Papineau, Howe, Fontaine, Baldwin, Durham, & Elgin in the rebellions & aftermath; Compare & contract the Constitutional Act of 1791 & Act of Union, 1841; Explain & assess the Durham Report & its recommendations Compare & contrast the governments of the 18th & 19th centuries with Canada today Formative Evaluation: Will be ongoing an include C.A.R.E.S connections and assessments, various exit slips, and critical thinking diagrams Summative Evaluation: Unit will be concluded by a an essay-format test that draws off these learning objectives.....the week of March 2nd

4 Creating a T-Chart Organizer:
We will create an on going T-Chart to help organize your notes- other Graphic Organizers will all be offered as we move along! T-Chart: Compare & Contrast/Similarities & Differences Concepts compared are Upper Canada (UC) & Lower Canada (LC) Similarities & Differences: 1. Geography- Human & Physical 2. Government-U/C & L/C 3. People- Way of Life & Background 4. Concerns- Political/Social/Economic 5. Family Compact & Chateau Clique 6. Reformers- Papineau & Mackenzie 7. Aftermath

5 I. Geography of Upper and Lower Canada
Borders what is now New Brunswick; northeast area of United States; & Great lakes Upper Canada- Southern Ontario Lower Canada- Quebec and Newfoundland Remember- “Up” the river and “down” the river Upper and Lower Canada both British Colonies Created by Constitutional Act, 1791 Lower Canada mainly French speaking “Canadiens” Upper Canada mainly English speaking people

6 Map of Upper & Lower Canada
Copy Diagram- next page….. unless you still have your Map of Canada from Term 1- that I told you to keep!


8 II. Government in Upper & Lower Canada- Constitutional Act, 1791
Copy Diagram- next page.


10 Government in Upper Canada Continued.....
Governor-British appointed Legislative Council- English-speaking merchants & land owners; friends of Governor; appointed not elected; veto power Legislative Assembly- voted by citizens- (male property owners) government was representative Two political parties dominated: Family Compact- Wealthy British Tories (conservatives) Reformers- Intellectuals & professionals

11 Government in Lower Canada
Governor-British appointed Legislative Council- ALL English-speaking merchants and seigneurs; friends of Governor; appointed not elected; veto power Legislative Assembly voted by citizens- representative Two political parties dominated- Chateau Clique, Parti Canadien (Parti Patriote) Chateau Clique- Wealthy British and French who supported British rule; true power brokers Parti Canadien- Wealthy and poor French; early separatists; intellectuals & professionals; unhappy with power

Government of Lower Canada Established by Constitutional act in 1791 Power limited by governors and councils Members of legislative councils were voted in for life English concerns were usually different from French concerns The group with the most power was Chateau Clique Believed that power should be in hands of a few capable people Wanted the Roman Catholic church to stay power Government of Upper Canada In 1830 government remained the same as the constitutional act in 1791 Two political groups the Tories and the Reformers Appointed Legislative council to Executive council Elected the Legislative Assembly The group with the most power was the Family Compact

13 III. People, Way of Life, Concerns

Population increased from: in 1806 to in 1841 (under 3x’s) Very high birth rates among French speaking population In addition British and American immigrants settled the eastern townships that had been set aside for English speaking farmers Britain, British rule and traditions were a direct threat to their cultural existence Habitant: (French) tenant farmer; rent land; poor Seigneur: (French) land owner; wealthy and powerful Merchant: (English) business owner; fur & timber industry; wealthy and powerful Professionals: (French & English) doctors, lawyers, etc.; middle class; seeking democracy

15 CONCERNS in Lower Canada
British merchants wanted to increase taxes for canals, harbors and roads for merchant use- few roads were built to help farmers Increased immigration from Great Britain began to threaten French culture and language 1832, immigrant ship brought disease cholera, killed 5500 Legislative assembly(French-speaking) hard to make laws 1836- crops failed- Canadians face starvation 1837- economic depression- English merchants blamed

Before 1812 Loyalists- Pro British settled upper Canada After 1812 a wave of settlers from great Great Britain Great Migration took their place- from Ireland, Wales, Scotland, England Brought virtues of limiting absolute power and importance of parliament democracy in making decisions Population increased from: in 1806 to in 1841 (almost 6x’s) Pioneer homestead start from scratch and forced native inland – new farms evolved Most inhabitants were subsistence farmers meaning they only farm for their family Main towns- Kingston & York-was renamed Toronto Need for transportation – roads, canals

17 CONCERNS in upper Canada
Responsible government was the major concern! Continued immigration to increase the English presence in Canada New immigrants from Great Britain bringing values of parliamentary democracy Reduction in the role of Church of England in taxes and affairs Reducing the power of values of traditionalism and conservatism Stronger voice for Elected Assembly Reduce voice for the Family Compact No veto powers

18 Peoples' history of canada Rebellion & Reform- episode 7
The Angry Men: 1. What role did William Lyon Mackenzie King, Louis Joseph Papineau, & Joseph Howe play in the movement for reform in B.N.A. Colonies during the 1830`s? 2. What did Mackenzie mean by the term Family Compact? Why did he oppose it? 3. Did this type of group exist in other B.N.A. colonies as well? B-ritish N-orth A-merica

19 IV. Political problems & Rebellion:

20 FAMILY COMPACT Small group of powerful people in Upper Canada
As well as friends and supporters known as Tories Didn’t want US government to be part of Canadian government Defended tradition and conservative values Believed power should be in the hands of few capable people (themselves) They had power to stop any laws passed by the legislative assembly Believed Church of England should have power Loyal to Great Britain concept of monarchy rule

21 Mackenzie & Upper Canada
William Lyon Mackenzie led the Reformers against the Family Compact Did not support the Constitution Act of 1791 Believed in responsible govt. Demanded 2 constitutional reforms Elected Legislative Council Executive council responsible to Assembly Reformers were against Clergy Reserves, Land grants to the oligarchies, Influence of the Church of England Power of the Banks

22 Armed Rebellion of Upper Canada
William Lyon Mackenzie turned people against government in Northern Toronto Used newspaper Colonial Advocate to challenge government Radicals wanted upper Canada like the American government December 5, 1837 Mackenzie led 800 men down Yonge street in Toronto In the United States Sir Francis bond head tried to raise an army to liberate upper Canada giving 120 hectares of land for whoever would join him Caught for breaking legal neutrality between Canada and the US- jailed 11 months

23 Papineau & Lower Canada
Louis-Joseph Papineau was Legislative Assembly member & leader- and wealthy seigneur official who led the Parti Patriote reformers Had strong support of French land owning and political elite Strong supporter of the old French order in Lower Canada- also Republican style government Led cultural conflict between French & English dominated the Assembly, Councils Created the 92 Resolutions- making government more respectful of cultural differences Started revolt in 1837 & 1838 Papineau fled to USA, then France, returned & Pardoned in 1845

French and English speaking merchants wanted different things for lower Canada Merchants wanted to improve roads, canals and harbours Immigration caused problems Chateau Clique was encouraging immigration from great Britain In 1832 and immigrant ship brought a deadly disease, cholera The disease 5500 victims

25 The Armed Rebellion In Lower Canada
British Army versus Patriote Army (Rebels) Began on November 23, 1837 at St. Denis; rebel victory Rebels built a fortress at St. Charles to fight the British but lost there and later at Saint-Eustache – Baker's Farm – Lacolle – Odelltown & Beauharnois Papineau fled to U.S After all the fighting 12 were hanged 58 were sent to Australia and 12 hundred were set free.

26 The armed Rebellion in Upper and Lower Canada
An armed conflict between lower Canada and the British Colonial, power of that province The political leader was Joseph Papinea The Canadians were ready to fight on November 1837 British troops charged and the Rebellions lost The largest battle was held at St. Eustach on December 14, 1837 The Rebel leader, Dr. J.Q. Chenier along with rebels died The British robbed and burned their village Upper Canada Rebellion against the British colonial government in 1837 and 1838 After the war of 1812 family compact owned most land “Crown Reserves” and “Protestant Clergy” The lower Canada broke out in autumn 1837 Bond Head sent all British troops to help suppress it Short Fight (less than 30 minutes) the battle finished and the rebel forces retreated 1860’s former rebels compensated by the Canadian government

27 Peoples' history of canada Rebellion & Reform- episode 7
Horrible Year: 1. What were the two competing parties in Montreal in the 1830’s? 2. Why did the struggle between them frequently take a violent form? 3. What cause the cholera outbreak in 1832? 4. What methods did local authorities take to control the disease?

28 The aftermath- lord durham & his report- act of union

29 Aftermath of the rebellion
Lower Canada became even worse than before the rebellion Upper Canada afraid to speak out because moderate reformers were branded as rebels Prime minister decided to send Lord Durham as Governor General Upper Canada was very short and disorganized London government was concerned about Rebellion Bond Head was recalled in 1837 he was replaced with Sir George Arthur Lord Durham was assigned to report grievances among the colonists and find a way to appease them Lord Durham’s report led to the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the province of Canada in 1840

30 Lord Durham And his Report
John George Lambton (Lord Durham) sent to Quebec City as governor general. Suggested solutions for rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. Wrote “report on Affairs of British Canada” also known as Durham report "[In Lower Canada] I expected to find a contest between a government and its people: I found two nations warring in the bosom of a single state" Lord Durham Recommended assimilating the French Canadians — whom he called "a people with no literature and no history" Named “Radical Jack” in British House of Commons because of radical policies. Upper and Lower Canada unite and become one colony, called United Province of Canada - would unite English speaking people, would give them majority in gov’t New colony should have responsible government - Local powers handled by colony: Imperial powers written, Governor advised by Executive Council only.

31 The Act of Union, 1841

32 LORD DURHAM’S REPORT Two Major recommendations in his report are:
The two colonies should become one called the United Province of Canada The United Colony should have a responsible government The British imperial powers(?) should be sent out in writing. All other legal power(?) Would be handled by the colonies Executive council and would be advised The governor stayed neutral but signed things by the executive council The executive council was not picked from the government but was chosen by leaders of other groups (legislative assembly) this is called “Responsible government” Members of the executive council would stay in the council if half of the legislative assembly supports them Personal Information Arrived in Quebec city as a governor general of British north America in 1838 Interested in education the poor

33 The Act of Union, 1841 Aim: create single government, establish English as official language Was first step toward Confederation Canada was split as Canada West (Upper Canada) and Canada East (Lower Canada, Ontario) In 1847, Lord Elgin became governor Executive Council/Cabinet got most power and are responsible to Legislative Assembly Many members formed political parties to achieve power. Nova Scotia:1847, New Brunswick: 1854, Newfoundland:1855, Prince Edward Island: Received responsible gov’t in these years.

34 II. Government in united canada- Act of union, 1840
Copy Diagram- next page


36 THE ACT OF UNION (1841) Since the Rebellion wanted a better and responsible government British passed a law called the Act of Union British government acted on one of Lord Durham’s recommendations The act of union joined in Upper and Lower Canada as the united province The two aims of the British were to control the two colonies of Canada into one and give the English people control of the newly named colony and to have a new colony with a responsible government They also established English as the official language of government

37 Peoples' history of canada Rebellion & Reform- episode 7
Union of the Canadas: 1. What two recommendations did Lord Durham make for the colonies? 2. What was the disagreement between Haliburton & Howe? How did the settle their differences? 3. What problem did Lafontaine face and how did Baldwin help him solve it?

38 Rebellions upper and lower canada 1837 & 1838
Key Events In Canadian History Which influenced The Nation We Have Today

39 SUMMARY: Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie The Reformers
Vs. Family Compact Lower Canada Louis Joseph Papineau The Patriots Vs. Chateau Clique Protesting against the Oligarchies control Desired a Responsible Government Wanted less Church control Assembly had to approve taxes or no collection would occur

40 Lord Durham’s Report Durham's Recommendations
to unite Upper and Lower Canada to make the French a minority to assimilate or anglicize the French majority in Lower Canada to grant responsible government Consequences of Durham's Recommendations Upper and Lower Canada were united in 1840 Responsible government was granted in 1848 leading to Confederation in 1867 Created the roots of today’s French ‘separatism’

41 Rebellions Losses Bill 1849
Reformers controlled the Assembly, their bill sought to compensate those in what had been Lower Canada for damages that resulted from the rebellions. was controversial because the Tories objected that many of the claimants were former rebels who were against the Crown. was well received by French Canadians, but British elements opposed it so strongly that they attacked Elgin and burned the parliament building down in Montreal

42 Confederation 1867 The Province of Canada, (Ontario & Quebec) New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island- 1867 A system based on British Parliament Proposed limited central government balanced by provincial power “Rep by pop” House of Commons and the Senate represented regions Called for a two-chamber (bicameral) parliament, including a (appointed) senate and a (elected) house of commons.

43 Copy Diagram- next page
Government in Canada- British north America act, 1867 (Canada act, 1867) Copy Diagram- next page



46 post unit essay Test questions:
Copy down the following questions: What was the Act of Union and how did it help to unite the Canada? Who was Lord Durham? Why is he significant in Canadian History? How did his report help form the identity and culture of Canada? Why was their unrest in Upper and Lower Canada? How did this unrest lead to the Rebellions of ? What was the government in Upper Canada? What was the government in Lower Canada? Were they similar? Different? How so? Compare and contrast government as established by the Constitutional Act, Act of Union, and BNA.

47 The end!

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