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Life in Lower Canada:1815-1838. Outline  Groups in Lower Canada  Government in Lower Canada  Unrest in Lower Canada.

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Presentation on theme: "Life in Lower Canada:1815-1838. Outline  Groups in Lower Canada  Government in Lower Canada  Unrest in Lower Canada."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life in Lower Canada:1815-1838

2 Outline  Groups in Lower Canada  Government in Lower Canada  Unrest in Lower Canada

3 1) Groups in Lower Canada  Habitants  Merchants  Professional Men

4 Habitants  French speaking tenant farmers  Paid rent to a Seigneur  Worked long narrow farms

5 Habitants  Changes occurring  Lifestyle might be threatened by English newcomers  French language  R/C religion  Agricultural way of life  Anxious over scarcity of land and poor economic conditions

6 Habitant Concerns  Population growth was filling up available farm land  Rows being split along the St. Lawrence R./Richelieu R./ Ottawa R.  With less land available many looked for work in towns and lumber camps or went to the U.S.

7 Merchants  English  New to the area in comparison to the Habitants  Rich and Powerful (exporting furs & timber + wheat the Habitants provided)

8 Merchants Desires  Focused on area improvements  Harbors  Canals  Roads  All of which they wanted to be paid for by the govt. through taxes

9 Professional Men  The newest of the 3 groups  Educated people (doctors & lawyers)

10 Professional Men Goals  Wanted to be the leaders of Lower Canada  Took it upon themselves to speak up for French- Speaking Lower Canada  Dreamt of a separate French Cdn Nation wherein they could then preserve the French Cdn way of life  The French language  R/C religion  Traditional agricultural lifestyle

11 2. Government in Lower Canada  Chateau Clique  Parti Canadien

12 Chateau Clique  Held most the power in Lower Canada  Mostly business people  British background or wealthy French Cdns  Supported the R/C church and the R/C church supported them in return  Favored British system of government & views  Wanted more English to join the current population

13 Parti Canadien (Parti Patriote 1826)  Almost exclusively French  Viewed change as a threat  They appealed to the professional elite  Louis-Joseph Papineau (lawyer) was their leader  From their political position (the legislative assembly) they were able to block the Merchants from their plans  (Harbors/Canals/Roads)

14 Canadien Sentiment “Not only did the British cast their beggars on the Canadian shore, they must do still more; they must send us, as the final outrage, pestilence and death.” -Parti Patriote-

15 3. Unrest in Lower Canada  Points of view  Appeal to Great Britain  Armed rebellion in Lower Canada

16 Points of View  Frustration from the Legislative Assembly  Difficulty passing laws  Reason  Legislative Council & Executive Council had different goals and values

17 Appeal to Great Britain  1834-The Legislative Assembly put forth a proposal  Ninety-Two Resolutions  Voted no for taxes until their concerns were addressed

18 Appeal to Great Britain  Lord Gosford came from Great Britain to investigate  Papineau & the Patriotes saw Gosford as a puppet  The merchants were unimpressed with Gosford trying to please the Patriotes  Gosford sent a report to Great Britain responding to the 92 Resolutions

19 Appeal to Great Britain  Great Britain responded with 10 Resolutions  Papineau & Patriotes not happy as Great Britain refused to give the Legislative Assembly power  British immigration still coming in  Even if the Legislative Assembly refused to vote for taxes the Governor would take money to pay his officials anyways

20 Appeal to Great Britain  Shortly after economic depression struck  United States  Great Britain  British North America  Additionally that further infuriated the Canadiens  Armed conflict to come

21 Armed Rebellion in Lower Canada  Papineau & his Canadiens ready to fight  Battle at St. Denis—November 23, 1837—Success  Battle at St. Charles unsuccessful  Papineau fled to the United States & if he was ever to return he would be executed

22 Armed Rebellions in Lower Canada  St. Eustache (biggest battle)  1000 Patriotes  Fought from a church & a couple buildings  Bombarded with canon fire  British lit churches and buildings on fire  70 Patriotes died  The Rebellions proved to be unsuccessful

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