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Presentation on theme: "REFUGEE COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA Emerging Communities."— Presentation transcript:


2 Origin of Offshore Program Entrants






8 IHSS Arrivals by Nationality to Victoria Sudan2005 Iraq309 Liberia221 Ethiopia129 Afghanistan126 Burma125 Iran96 Fmr Yug 64 Burundi59 Somalia34 Eritrea23 Sierra Leone 19 DRC15

9 Top 10 Victorian LGAs

10 Map of Africa

11 Liberia

12 Brief History Gained independence 1847 State founded by freed American slaves Dominated by minority Afro-American settlers Instability began in 1980 with coup 14 years of civil war ended in 2003 More than 200,000 killed and over 1 million fled Situation still remains fragile

13 Facts & Figures Capital – Monrovia Population – 3.5 million 95% indigenous tribes 2.5-5% Americo- Liberians Official languages: English & 29 African languages Predominantly Christian and indigenous beliefs 57.5% literacy rate Economy devastated – primary export rubber

14 Health Life expectancy males 40 females 44 (who) 80% of population lives on less than $1 per day (WHO) Health system breakdown Malnutrition and water/sanitation related diseases – cholera, dysentery, malaria 5.9% Prevalence of HIV/AIDS – up to 20% in some urban areas Increase in gender based violence during conflict

15 Refugees Possible resettlement: Mandingo (mainly muslim) or Krahn background in Guinea Urban refugees in Sierra Leone Experienced multiple displacement Survivors of violence & torture – incl. gender based – ‘rebel wives’ Elderly and orphans Number of Humanitarian visas granted in last 3 program years: 630

16 Current Intake Group resettlement of mainly female-headed households from Guinea and Ivory Coast under women at risk visa 60% Christian, 40% Muslim 188 settling in Melbourne and Geelong Most have been in camps since early 1990s Many have experienced multiple displacement due to fighting in country of exile Survivors of violence & torture – often gender based

17 Sierra Leone

18 Brief History British Colony Independence in 1961 1991-2002 Civil War 50,000 dead. Trademark of rebels was to hack off victim’s hands Civil war funded/perpetuated by diamond trade 70,000 former combatants disarmed and ‘rehabilitated’ Peace remains fragile

19 Facts & Figures Capital – Freetown Population – 5.1 million 90% African tribes, 10% Krio (descendants from freed Jamaican slaves) Official languages: English & Krio (Creole derived from English) 60% Muslim, 30% indigenous beliefs 31.4% literacy rate 2/3 population subsistence agriculture – hard currency through diamonds

20 Health Life expectancy males 32 females 35 (WHO) Gender violence serious threat to public health High levels of malnutrition Respiratory infections, diarrhoea, malaria 7% Prevalence of HIV/AIDS –25% for the military

21 Refugees Possible resettlement: Women at risk Survivors of torture & trauma, including amputees Former unaccompanied minors who have reached majority and have no family or other ties Number of Humanitarian visas granted in last 3 program years: 711

22 Latest Intake From camp in Guinea (group resettlement along with the Liberians)

23 Burundi

24 Brief History Belgian colony connected to Rwanda - Ruanda-Urundi 1962 gains independence Plagued by continuous ethnic conflict and massacres between Tutsi minority and Hutu majority 1988 Thousands of Hutus massacred and thousands flee over border into Rwanda 1993 first democratically elected President is Hutu – 4 months later is assassinated 1994 parliament appoints another Hutu President who is killed later in the year when plane is shot down (Rwandan President also killed) 2003 government power-sharing arrangements brokered along with ceasefire. 2004 Dec disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process officially began

25 Facts and Figures Capital – Bujumbura Population – over 6 million 85% Hutu, 14% Tutsi Official languages: Kirundi and French Predominantly Christian 51% literacy rate Mainly subsistence agriculture

26 Health Life expectancy males 39 females 43 (who) 69% of population lives below poverty line (WHO) 4.1-8.8% Prevalence of HIV/AIDS Prevalance of HIV/AIDs among adults with TB – 35% High prevalence of Malaria

27 Refugees 1972 Refugees who fled to Tanzania – more than 30 years in exile No longer have ties Burundi Likely group resettlement 1990s Survivors of violence & torture Women at risk Legal & protection issues Political profile Mixed marriages Number of Humanitarian visas granted in last 3 program years: 176

28 Latest Intake From camps in Tanzania Average time in camps 8 years No running water or electricity Cuts in food rations by World Food Program - malnutrition


30 Brief History Ex Belgian colony – Ruanda-Urundi (later to become Rwanda and Burundi) Belgium ruled indirectly through Tutsi kings Tutsi minority Hutu majority 1959 Tutsi king overthrown, tens of thousands of Tutsis exiled to Uganda. 1961 Rwanda gains independence Periodic massacres of Tutsis

31 More Recently Tutsi led Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) make invasions from Uganda 1993 President signs power-sharing agreement with Tutsis 1994 April, President killed along with Burundian president when plane shot down. This triggers genocidal attacks against Tutsis and moderate Hutus RPF launch military campaign & regain control of country in July Approx 2 million Rwandans, mainly Hutu forced into exile in neighboring states

32 Facts & Figures Capital Kigali Pop – almost 8 million 84% Hutu, 15% Tutsi Three official languages: Kinyarwanda (Bantu), French & English Predominantly Christian 70% literacy rate Mainly subsistence agriculture

33 Health 25% of sexually active urban population has HIV/Aids (UNDP, 1999) 10-11% in rural areas Life expectancy males 38 females 39 34% female headed households

34 Refugees 2004 UNHCR sponsored repatriation exercise – Amnesty has concerns Rwandans in need of resettlement: –Women at risk –Couples in mixed marriages –Traumatised survivors of extreme violence –Refugees with no local integration prospects –Hutu opponents of the current regime

35 Sudan SOUTH: Civil war >20 years >2 million dead >4 million displaced >570,000 refugees Peace accord signed January 2005 DARFUR: Fighting since Feb 03 1.6 million displaced 17,000 dead

36 South 21 year civil war between North (Arab) and South (African) 2 million killed 4 million displaced Peace deal signed Jan 2005 –South to get greater autonomy and an independence referendum in 6 years –North to receive equal share of oil reserves that are ma

37 Darfur 2003 separate fighting broke out in western region of Darfur after rebels seeking greater autonomy began insurrection Pro-govt Arab militias accused of ethnic cleansing –Tens of thousands killed –1.8 million displaced (internally and over border into Chad)

38 Facts and Figures Population: 35 million Capital: Khartoum Languages: Arabic (official), Nubian Religions: Islam, Christianity Life expectancy: 54 (men), 57 (women) Health figures for southern Sudan difficult to establish due to destruction of infrastructure Widespread poverty and illiteracy

39 Democratic Republic of Congo 3.8 million deaths in 5 years Ongoing conflict despite 2003 peace agreement 31,000 deaths in 18 months > “peace” Fighting for access to natural resources Rwandan complication Violations by UN troops Vulnerable groups include ethnic minorities, mixed marriages and torture trauma survivors

40 Togo Unstable since achieving independence from the French in 1960 Very poor human rights record – especially by military Sanctions have destroyed economy Political crisis in early 2005 Resettlement for long term refugees unable to return

41 Bhutan 1988 - ethnic Nepalese declared “illegal immigrants” 1990 – violent clashes lead to exodus >100,000 now living in crowded and dangerous camps in Eastern Nepal Nepal says they must return to Bhutan. Bhutan will only allow small numbers to return Standoff – complicated by political unrest in Nepal

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