Presentation on theme: "Modern Conflicts in Africa Rwandan Genocide, Crisis in Darfur, Joseph Kony."— Presentation transcript:
Modern Conflicts in Africa Rwandan Genocide, Crisis in Darfur, Joseph Kony
Genocide (Quick Review) What is genocide? Where have we seen genocide/ethnic cleansing this year?
Modern Conflicts in Africa 1)Rwandan Genocide 2)Crisis in Darfur 3)Joseph Kony and Uganda
Rwandan Genocide Who: Hutus target Tutsis What: Genocide lasts 100 days When: begins April 6, 1994
Rwandan Genocide Why? Hutu & Tutsis share a common past Long ago, a Tutsi was a person who owned cattle A Hutu was someone without a cow Prior to colonialism, these groups get along and intermarry Germany colonizes in 1894 and lets Tutsis have positions of responsibility because of lighter skin Why choose lighter skin? Post WWI - Germany loses colonies and is replaced by Belgium Belgium makes Hutus and Tutsis wear identification cards and put Tutsis in responsibility positions How does this make the Hutus feel?
Rwandan Genocide Timeline 1993 Aug.: Rwandan government (Hutu) and RPF (Tutsi) sign cease-fire and Arusha Accords. Oct. 5: UN authorizes peacekeepers to help implement Arusha Accords Nov.: 2500 UN troops deployed in Rwanda.
Rwandan Genocide Timeline 1994 Feb: Series of massacres/political assassinations occur in Kigali. Hutus prepare death lists, and amass machetes. April 6: Rwandan/Burundian Presidents assassinated in plane crash, genocide begins Apr 7: Hutu extremists set up roadblocks and go from house to house killing Tutsis and moderate Hutu politicians. Apr 21: UN withdraws all troops from Rwanda. Mid-May: Red Cross estimates 500,000 Rwandans are dead. Mid-July: RPF (Tutsi) capture Kigali and the genocide is over. An estimated 800,000 Rwandans are dead.
Crisis In Darfur Who: Black Africans vs. Arab Africans What: Attempted genocide against non- Arabs in Darfur region When: Begins February 26, 2003
Crisis In Darfur Basic Conflict: Sudanese Liberation Army vs. Janjaweed NOT about religion What could it be about? Think about Africa’s climate Sudanese Liberation Army: Black African rebels fighting the Arab backed Sudanese government and the Janjaweed Janjaweed: Arab militiamen backed by the Arab government who set out to destroy Black African villages in Darfur
Crisis In Darfur International Response The African Union has had a difficult time suppressing the violence and helping in Darfur The United Nations cannot get support from the Sudanese government or from China (permanent member of Security Council) Results Over 2.8 million displaced from their homes (refugees) Refugee: people who flee their homes due to violence and civil war in their country Numbers vary but between 200,000 and 480,000 killed What besides the fighting has caused large scale death?
Joseph Kony and Uganda Who: Government of Uganda (GOU) and Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) What: Armed civil conflict and war crimes When: Started in 1987, still ongoing
Joseph Kony and Uganda History Had been civil unrest in Northern Uganda for years LRA was led by Joseph Kony who had no real agenda Wanted to establish a government based on the Ten Commandments Really, he wanted to terrorize the people of central Africa Humanitarian Crisis Considered by UN to be among worst in nation Joseph Kony and his advisors are charged in the International Criminal Court Charged with murder, rape, using child soldiers, abduction, etc.
Joseph Kony and Uganda LRA Today Exist in Central African Republic, evading capture Still wanted by ICC for crimes Last remaining anti-Ugandan organization Result 66,000 children abducted Over 2 million people displaced Over 100,000 dead How does this make you feel?
Ticket out of Class/Essential Question What kinds of problems have these regional and ethnic conflicts caused in Africa?
Homework Your task is to find a primary source about one of these conflicts Using the internet you will find a firsthand account from someone who was there when these conflicts took place You will then write a half page response about the primary source What was the person saying? Why do you believe it? How does it make you feel? Use your thinking like a historian sheet to guide you Bring it with you to class on Friday