2 History of the Conflict In the fifteenth century the Tutsis were the rulers of most of today's RwandaPut in place by the Belgians to ruleTutsis were a minority of the population, mostly herdersMajority Hutus were mostly croppersWhen kings distributed the land, they gave it the to Tutsis who charged Hutus to live and work on the land
3 Evolution of Titles Originally an ethnic distinction Everyone who wasn’t Tutsi is labeled HutuBecame an economic statusGaining wealth meant losing “Hutuness”When the Belgians gained the land as part of the Treaty of Versailles in 1918, they used the distinction to “divide and rule”Issued passcards to RwandansGave preferential treatment toTutsis (“with the long nose”)Hutu’s had “blunt nose”
4 Beginning of a Social Revolution Hutus begin to form a a nationalist party (Parmahutu) to fight for their rights in 1959Began killings of Tutsi (20,000 the first year)200,000 Tutsi refugees flee border and from the Rwanda Patriotic FrontRwanda gains its independence from Belgium in 1961
5 What we have so far… Tutsi minority is ruling Hutus have formed groups to fight against the injusticeTutsi refugees have formed groups in other countries
6 The Rwandan Civil War Conflict lasting from 1990-1993+ Between the government ofPresident Habyarimana (Hutu)and the rebel Rwandan PatrioticFront (Tutsi group in other country)Tutsis were trying to take back the power in RwandaPeace agreements were signed, but Habyarimana (Hutu President) doesn’t cede power to any other political partyHabyarimana
7 The Action of… two extremist Hutu militias The Interahamwe "those who stand together" or "those who work together" or "those who fight together”A Hutu paramilitary organizationBacked by the Hutu GovernmentImpuzamugambi"Those who have the same goal" or "Those who have a single goal"Hutu militia
8 The CatalystOn April 6, 1994,the airplane carrying Rwandan President Habyarimana and the Hutu president of Burundi was shot down as it prepared to land in KigaliBoth presidents died when the plane crashed.Responsibility for the attack is disputed, with both the RPF and Hutu extremists being blamedIn spite of disagreements about the identities of its perpetrators, the attack on the plane is to many observers the catalyst for the genocide
9 The Beginnings of Genocide National radio urged people to stay in their homesthe government-funded station RTLMbroadcast vitriolic attacks againstTutsis and Hutu moderatesHundreds of roadblocks were set up by the militia around the countryLieutenant-General Dallaire of the UN Peacekeeping Force and UNAMIR, escorting Tutsis in Kigali, were unable to do anything as Hutus kept escalating the violence and even started targeting the peacekeepers themselves
10 The KillingsKilled in their villages or in towns, often by their neighbors and fellow villagersMilitia members typically murdered their victims by hacking them with machetes, although some army units used riflesThe victims were often hiding in churches and school buildings, where Hutu gangs massacred themOrdinary citizens were called on by local officials and government-sponsored radio to kill their neighbors and those who refused to kill were often killed themselvesEveryone killed so they weren’t killed themselves:MayorsPriestsEVERYONE
11 Number Killed Unlike Nazis they didn’t keep record The RPF government has stated that 1,071,000 were killed, 10% of which were Hutu (determined in February 2008)Gourevitch agrees with an estimate of one millionUnited Nations lists the toll as 800,000African Rights estimates the number as "around 750,000,"Human Rights Watch states that it was "at least 500,000
13 Issues Post-GenocideApproximately two million Hutu refugees, most of whom were participants in the genocide and with anticipation of Tutsi retaliation, fled from Rwanda, to Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo)Thousands of them died in epidemics of diseases common to the squalor of refugee camps, such as cholera and dysenteryThese are the refugee camps that were aided by the UN and the USThe refugees have fueled wars in Uganda, Burundi, and the DRC
14 Questions Still Exist Why didn’t the US do anything? Why didn’t the UN listen to Daillaire?How could people kill their neighbors?How many actually died?How can we prevent this from happening again?
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