I.Darfur, Sudan (2003) 1.Aggressors A.Sudanese government. B.Janjaweed – Arab nomads. 2.Victims A.Black African ethnic groups from southern Darfur. 3.Cause – nomads have invaded southern Darfur for access to better land. 4.As many as 450,000 dead from violence & disease.
Darfur (Sudan) Culture is divided between those of Arab background and those of African background. Arabs control the government and have used this power to oppress the black population. Janjaweed – Arab militia supported by the govt. have attacked black villages in Darfur (over 450,000 dead, thousands of women and girls raped, over 2.5 million displaced refugees) International Court has issued a warrant for Pres. Omar al-Bashir. Not enough action on the part of the world to stop this genocide.
I.Rwandan Civil War (1994) 1.Tutsis – A.Held most of the power, but was only 15-20% of the population. B.Were given special treatment better jobs, education. C.Redistribution of land. 2.Hutu – A.80-85% of the population. B.Mistreated by Tutsis. 3.Genocide – trying to kill off an entire ethnic group, religion, race, etc. A.Hutu uprising – wanted a Hutu run government. B.April-July 1994 i.500,000 Tutsis die. ii.Total death = 800,000 – 1,000,000.
Tribal Makeup – divided between Hutus and Tutsis. Hutus – 85% of the pop. Tutsis – 15% of the pop. Pre-1800s – Tutsi royal family ruled the area (held most of the wealth).
European Imperialism 1800s – early 1900s – Rwanda controlled by Germany and then Belguim Tutsis are favored over the Hutus by Europeans (over the years, creates tension btw. the two tribes)
Rwandan Independence 1959 – Rwanda given ind. by Belgium Elections held – Hutu majority wins the election. Hutus use power to begin to take rights/power away from Tutsi minority. Violence breaks out causing many Tutsis to flee the nation. 1985 – Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) created by Paul Kagame to fight for Tutsi rights in Rwanda.
1990 – Civil war breaks out as RPF attacks Rwandan army. 1993 – Civil war ends as RPF and Hutu govt. try to make peace. Hutus in the army and govt. begin to gather arms and train militias in preparation for mass killings. April 6, 1994 – Rwandan president Juvenal Habyarimana assasinated (plane shot out of sky)
Genocide Begins Moderate members of the govt. are all killed by the radicals to prevent their blocking of the killings. April – July 1994 – Tutsis and moderate Hutus are rounded up and killed. (1 million dead)
World’s Response? VERY LITTLE IS DONE!!! United States doesn’t want to get involved because of what happened in Somalia in 1993. UN peacekeeping force in Rwanda is too small to accomplish anything. UN commander in Rwanda constantly asked for reinforcements.
Genocide Ends RPF immediately resumes its attacks after hearing word of the genocide. July 1994 – RPF seizes control of the capital ending the genocide. 2 million Hutus flee Rwanda to neighboring nations. Paul Kagame becomes President of Rwanda in 2000 (still is today). Trials held in Rwanda to punish those who participated in the genocide.