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Intermediate Formulas & Functions Instructor: Rachel Baltus

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Course Outline Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of formulas and functions In Microsoft Excel I. Formulas A. Mathematical Order of Operations B. Cell References 1. Relative references 2. Absolute references 3. 3-D references C. Naming Cells, Ranges & Formulas II. Functions A. Types 1. Logical functions 2. Date functions B. Nested Functions

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Formulas: Mathematical Order of Operations The Mathematical Order of Operations states that within a formula calculations are to be done in the following order: 1. Parentheses 2. Exponents 3. Multiplication and Division (left to right) 4. Addition and Subtraction (left to right)

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Formulas: Mathematical Order of Operations Example: The formula =15-2*2 will result in 11 (NOT 26).

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Formulas: Cell References Three types of cell references: 1. Relative References 2. Absolute References 3. 3-D References

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Formulas: Cell References Relative References – Relative references are based on relative positions within an Excel spreadsheet. Columns are referred to by letters and rows are referred to by numbers. This is also called the A1 reference style.

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Formulas: Cell References Relative references Example: The number 100 in the spreadsheet below is in cell A1. The number 123 is in cell A2 and so on. The formula in cell A3 uses relative references. The formula in A3 is =SUM(A1:A2). If this formula were to be copied from A3 to B3, Excel would automatically change the formula relative to the position the formula was being copied to. In this case, the formula would change to =SUM(B1:B2).

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Formulas: Cell References Absolute References – In absolute references, the row and/or column are preceded by a $ sign. Absolute references refer to a specific location. The reference will remain the same if it is copied from one cell to another.

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Formulas: Cell References Absolute references Example: The formula in cell A4 uses both an absolute and relative reference. The formula in A4 is =A3*$C$1. When this formula is copied from A4 to B4, Excel will automatically change the relative referenced cell but would keep the absolute reference the same. In this case, the formula would change to =B4*$C$1.

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3-D References – “A 3-D reference includes the cell or range reference, preceded by a range of worksheet names. Excel uses any worksheets stored between the starting and ending names of the reference. 1 ” 1. Definition taken from Microsoft Excel help. Formulas: Cell References

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3-D references Example: The formula in cell A1 uses a 3- D reference. The formula in A1 is =SUM(Sheet1:Sheet2!A3). This will add the values in A3 for Sheet1 and Sheet2 in the workbook. When this formula is copied from A1 to B1, Excel would automatically change the formula to read =SUM(Sheet1:Sheet2!B3).

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Cells, ranges and formulas can be given descriptive names. The name can then be used in other parts of the spreadsheet or workbook to refer to that specific cell, range or formula. Formulas: Naming Cells, Ranges & Formulas

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How to name a cell, range or formula: 1.Select the cell, range or formula you would like to name. 2.Click in the Name drop down box (in the picture below, the box has A6 in it). 3.Type the name you would like. In this example, cells A1 and A2 were selected. They were then given the name “Products_Sold”. In cell A6, the named range “Products Sold” is used in a formula. The formula is =SUM(Products_Sold).

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Functions: Types There are many types of functions. In class today we will be going over two types: 1. Logical Functions 2. Date Functions

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Logical Functions 1 AND: Returns true if all arguments are true FALSE: Returns the logical value FALSE IF: Specifies a logical test to perform NOT: Reverses the logic of its arguments OR: Returns true if any argument is true TRUE: Returns the logical value TRUE 1. Definitions of logical functions taken from Microsoft Excel help. Functions: Types

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Logical Functions IF statements Functions can be inserted using the Insert Function dialog box. 1. select Insert from the toolbar 2. then select Function 3. select Logical in the category drop down box 4. select IF from the list

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Functions: Types IF Statements The Function Arguments dialog box will then appear. In the Logical_test box, enter condition to be evaluated. In the Value_if_true box, enter the value to be placed in the cell if the logical test proves true. In the Value_if_false box, enter the value to be placed in the cell if the logical test proves false. Then click ok. Example: =IF(SUM(A1:A6)>100,TRUE,FALSE)

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Functions: Types Date Functions NOW: Returns current date and time TODAY: Returns current date DAYS360: Determines the number of days between two dates based on 360 days in a year.

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Functions: Nested Functions Nested functions are functions that contain other functions within them. Example:=IF(SUM(A1:A6)>100,Sum(B1:B6),100)

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