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**Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1**

Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1**

Unit 1 Preparing and Formatting a Worksheet Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet Excel is a powerful decision-making tool containing data that can be manipulated to answer "What if?" situations. Insert a formula in a worksheet and then manipulate the data to make projections, answer specific questions, and plan for the future. For example, the owner of a company might prepare a worksheet on production costs and then determine the impact on company revenues if production is increased or decreased. Insert a formula in a worksheet to perform calculations on values. A formula contains a mathematical operator, value, cell reference, cell range, and function. Formulas can be written that add, subtract, multiply, and/or divide values. Formulas can also be written that calculate averages, percentages, minimum and maximum values, and much more. As you learned in Chapter 1, Excel includes an AutoSum button in the Editing group on the HOME tab that inserts a formula to calculate the total of a range of cells and also includes some commonly used formulas. Along with the AutoSum button, Excel includes a FORMULAS tab that offers a variety of functions to create formulas. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet Quick Links to Presentation Contents Write Formulas Insert Formulas with Functions Write Formulas with Statistical Functions CHECKPOINT 1 Write Formulas with NOW and TODAY Functions Display Formulas Use Absolute and Mixed Cell References CHECKPOINT 2 You can navigate through this presentation while in Slide Show view. Click on an underlined content item on this slide to advance directly to the related topic slide. To return to this slide, click the Contents button located in the bottom right corner of each slide. Alternatively, you can advance through the presentation one slide at a time by clicking the Next button, which appears as a right-pointing arrow in the bottom right corner of each slide. Go back a slide by clicking the Previous button, which appears as a left-pointing arrow in the bottom right corner of each slide. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1**

Write Formulas Operator Function + addition - subtraction * multiplication / division % percent ^ exponentiation As you learned in Chapter 1, the AutoSum button in the Editing group on the HOME tab creates the formula for you. You can also write your own formulas using mathematical operators. Commonly used mathematical operators and their functions are displayed in the table in this slide. When writing your own formula, begin the formula with an equals sign. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Write Formulas - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Write Formulas - continued If a formula contains two or more operators, Excel uses the same order of operations used in algebra. From left to right in a formula, this order, called the order of operations, is: negations (negative number—a number preceded by a minus sign) first, then percents, then exponentiations, followed by multiplications, divisions, additions, and finally subtractions. To change the order of operations, use parentheses around the part of the formula that you want to be calculated first. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Write Formulas - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Write Formulas - continued Copy a Formula Relatively: Insert formula in cell. Select cell containing formula and all cells you want to contain formula. Click Fill button. Click desired direction. Fill button In many worksheets, the same basic formula is used multiple times. In a situation where a formula is going to be copied to other locations in a worksheet, use a relative cell reference. Relative cell references change when a formula is copied. To copy a formula relatively in a worksheet, use the Fill button or the fill handle. To use the Fill button, select the cell containing the formula as well as the cells to which you want to copy the formula and then click the Fill button in the Editing group on the HOME tab. At the Fill button drop-down list, click the desired direction. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Write Formulas - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Write Formulas - continued To copy a relative formula using the fill handle: Insert formula in cell. With cell active, position mouse pointer on fill handle. Hold down left mouse button, drag and select desired cells, and then release mouse button. Use the fill handle to copy a formula up, down, left, or right within a worksheet. To use the fill handle, insert the desired data in the cell (text, value, formula, etc.). With the cell active, position the mouse pointer on the fill handle until the mouse pointer turns into a thin, black cross. Hold down the left mouse button, drag and select the desired cells, and then release the mouse button. If you are copying a cell that contains a formula, a relative version of the formula will be copied to the selected cells. fill handle Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Write Formulas - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Write Formulas - continued Write a formula by pointing: Click cell that will contain the formula. Type equals sign. Click cell you want to reference in formula. Type desired mathematical operator. Click next cell reference. Press Enter. formula Another method for writing a formula is to “point” to the specific cells that are to be part of the formula. Creating a formula by pointing is often more accurate than typing the cell reference since a mistake can happen when typing the cell reference. To write a formula by pointing, click the cell that will contain the formula, type the equals sign to begin the formula, and then click the cell you want to reference in the formula. This inserts a moving border around the cell and also changes the mode from Enter to Point. The word POINT displays at the left side of the Status bar. Type the desired mathematical operator and then click the next cell reference. Continue in this manner until all cell references are specified and then press the Enter key. This ends the formula and inserts the result of the formula in the active cell. When writing a formula by pointing, you can also select a range of cells that you want to include in the formula. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Write Formulas - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Write Formulas - continued To use the Trace Error button: Click Trace Error button when it appears. Select an option from drop-down list. Trace Error button As you are working in a worksheet, you may occasionally notice a button pop up near the active cell. The general term for this button is smart tag. The display of smart tags varies depending on the action performed. When the Trace Error button appears, a small, dark green triangle also displays in the upper left corner of the cell. Click the Trace Error button and a drop-down list displays with options for updating the formula to include specific cells, getting help with the error, ignoring the error, editing the error in the Formula bar, and completing an error check. You can click the Trace Error button, read information on what Excel perceives as the error, and then tell Excel to ignore the error. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Write Formulas - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Write Formulas - continued Excel is a sophisticated program that requires data input and formula creation to follow strict guidelines in order to function properly. When guidelines that specify how data or formulas are entered are not followed, Excel will display one of many error codes. When an error is identified with a code, determining and then fixing the problem is easier than if no information is provided. Most errors in Excel are the result of the user incorrectly inputting data into a worksheet. However, most error messages will not display until the data is used in a formula or function. Common mistakes made while inputting data include placing text in a cell that requires a number, entering data in the wrong location, and entering numbers in an incorrect format. Other errors are the result of entering a formula or function improperly. A formula will often display an error message if it is trying to divide a number by zero or it contains a circular reference (that is, when a formula within a cell uses the results of that formula in the same cell). Functions tend to display error messages if the arguments of a particular function are not correctly defined or if a function name is typed incorrectly. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Write Formulas - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Write Formulas - continued Error Code Meaning #DIV/O A formula is attempting to divide a number by zero. #N/A An argument parameter has been left out of a function. #NAME? A function name is not entered correctly. #NUM! An argument parameter does not meet a function’s requirements. #REF! A referenced cell no longer exists within a worksheet. #VALUE The data entered is the wrong type (for example, text instead of numbers). The table in this slide displays common error codes when writing formulas in Excel. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Insert Formulas with Functions**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Insert Formulas with Functions =SUM(B2:B5) is an example of a formula. The beginning section of the formula, =SUM, is called a function, which is a built-in formula. A function operates on what is referred to as an argument. An argument may also contain a constant. When a value calculated by the formula is inserted in a cell, this process is referred to as returning the result. When creating a formula, you can save keystrokes by inserting a function. For example, the =SUM function saves you from having to type each cell to be included in the formula with the plus symbol between each cell reference. Excel provides other functions for writing formulas as well. An argument may consist of a constant, a cell reference, or another function. In the formula =SUM(B2:B5), the cell range (B2:B5) is an example of a cell reference argument. A constant is a value entered directly into a formula. For example, if you enter the formula =SUM(B3:B9,100), the cell range B3:B9 is a cell reference argument and 100 is a constant. In this formula, 100 is always added to the sum of the cells. The term returning refers to the process of calculating the formula and the term result refers to inserting the value in the cell. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Insert Formulas with Functions - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Insert Formulas with Functions - continued FORMULAS tab You can type a function in a cell in a worksheet or you can use the Insert Function button. The Insert Function button is located on the Formula bar and on the FORMULAS tab. This slide displays the FORMULAS tab. The FORMULAS tab contains the Insert Function button as well as other buttons for inserting functions in a worksheet. The Function Library group on the FORMULAS tab contains a number of buttons for inserting functions from a variety of categories such as Financial, Logical, Text, and Date & Time. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Insert Formulas with Functions - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Insert Formulas with Functions - continued To insert a function: Position insertion in desired cell. Click Insert Function button. At Insert Function dialog box, choose function category. Choose function. Click OK. continues on next slide… Click the Insert Function button on the Formula bar or on the FORMULAS tab and the Insert Function dialog box displays as shown in this slide. At the Insert Function dialog box, the most recently used functions display in the Select a function list box. Choose a function category by clicking the down-pointing arrow at the right side of the Or select a category list box and then clicking the desired category at the drop-down list. Use the Search for a function search box to locate a specific function. With the desired function category selected, choose a function in the Select a function list box and then click OK. This displays a Function Arguments palette like the one shown in the next slide. Insert Function dialog box Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Insert Formulas with Functions - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Insert Formulas with Functions - continued At Function Arguments palette, enter desired data. Function Arguments palette This slide continues from the previous slide and lists the steps to insert a function. At the Function Arguments palette, enter in the Number1 text box the range of cells you want included in the formula, any constants that are to be included as part of the formula, or another function. You can either type a cell reference or a range of cells in an argument text box or you can point to a cell or select a range of cells with the mouse pointer. Pointing to cells or selecting a range of cells using the mouse pointer is the preferred method of entering data into an argument text box because there is less chance of making errors. After entering a range of cells, a constant, or another function, click the OK button. You can include more than one argument in a function. If the function you are creating contains more than one argument, press the Tab key to move the insertion point to the Number2 text box, and then enter the second argument. To display a specific cell or cells behind the function palette, move the palette by clicking and dragging it. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Insert Formulas with Functions - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Insert Formulas with Functions - continued Excel performs over 300 functions that are divided into thirteen different categories including Financial, Date & Time, Math & Trig, Statistical, Lookup & Reference, Database, Text, Logical, Information, Engineering, Cube, Compatibility, and Web. Clicking the AutoSum button in the Function Library group on the FORMULAS tab or the Editing group on the HOME tab automatically inserts the SUM function, which adds numbers. The SUM function is included in the Math & Trig category. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Insert Formulas with Functions - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Insert Formulas with Functions - continued Excel includes the Formula AutoComplete feature that displays a drop-down list of functions. To use the AutoComplete feature, click in the desired cell or in the Formula bar text box, type the equals sign, and then type the first letter of the desired function. This displays a drop-down list with functions that begin with the letter. Double-click the desired function, enter the cell references, and then press Enter. AutoComplete list Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Write Formulas with Statistical Functions**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Write Formulas with Statistical Functions The AVERAGE function returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the arguments. AVERAGE function In this section, you will learn how to write formulas with the statistical functions AVERAGE, MAX, MIN, and COUNT. A common function in a formula is the AVERAGE function. With this function, a range of cells is added together and then divided by the number of cell entries. One of the advantages to using formulas in a worksheet is the ability to easily manipulate data to answer certain questions. When a function such as the AVERAGE function calculates cell entries, it ignores certain cell entries. The AVERAGE function will ignore text in cells and blank cells (not zeros). If you do not want a particular value to be included in the average, enter text in the cell such as N/A (for not applicable) or leave the cell blank. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Write Formulas with Statistical Functions - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Write Formulas with Statistical Functions - continued The MAX function in a formula returns the largest value in a cell range. The MIN function returns the smallest value in a cell range. For example, you could use the MAX and MIN functions in a worksheet containing employee hours to determine which employee worked the most hours and which employee worked the least. In a worksheet containing sales commissions, you could use the MAX and MIN functions to determine the salesperson who earned the most commission dollars and the one who earned the least. Insert a MAX and MIN function into a formula in the same manner as an AVERAGE function. MIN function Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Write Formulas with Statistical Functions - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Write Formulas with Statistical Functions - continued Use the COUNT function to count the number of cells that contain numbers within the list of arguments. For example, in a range of cells containing cells with text and cells with numbers, you can count how many cells in the range contain numbers. In the worksheet, the cells containing the text N/A are not counted by the COUNT function. COUNT function Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1**

CHECKPOINT 1 Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 When writing your own formula, begin the formula with this. division sign minus sign plus sign equals sign A function operates on what is referred to as this. a cell a selection a range an argument Answer Answer Next Question Next Question If you want to change the order of operations, use these around the part of the formula that you want calculated first. minus signs equals signs parentheses plus signs Use this function to count the numeric values in a range. ADD TOTAL SUM COUNT In Slide Show view, read Question 1 and then click the Answer button after you believe that you know the correct answer. The correct answer will be displayed. Click the Next Question button and Question 2 will appear. Repeat these steps for the remaining questions. After you have clicked the Answer button for Question 4, the Next Slide button will appear. Click this button to advance to the next slide. Answer Answer Next Question Next Slide Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Write Formulas with NOW and TODAY Functions**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Write Formulas with NOW and TODAY Functions The NOW and TODAY functions are part of the Date & Time category of functions. The NOW function returns the current date and time in a date and time format. The TODAY function returns the current date in a date format. To access the NOW and TODAY functions, click the Date & Time button in the Function Library group on the FORMULAS tab. You can also access these functions at the Insert Function dialog box. Both the NOW and TODAY functions automatically update when a workbook is opened. They can also be updated without closing and then reopening the workbook. To update a workbook that contains a NOW or TODAY function, click the Calculate Now button in the Calculation group on the FORMULAS tab or press the F9 function key. Date & Time button Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1**

Display Formulas In some situations, you may need to display the formulas in a worksheet rather than the results of the formula. Display all formulas in a worksheet, rather than the results, by clicking the FORMULAS tab and then clicking the Show Formulas button in the Formula Auditing group. You can also turn on the display of formulas with the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + `. Press Ctrl + ` to turn off the display of formulas or click the Show Formula button on the FORMULAS tab. You may want to display formulas for auditing purposes or to check the formulas for accuracy. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Use Absolute and Mixed Cell References**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Use Absolute and Mixed Cell References A reference identifies a cell or a range of cells in a worksheet and can be relative, absolute, or mixed. A relative cell reference refers to cells relative to a position in a formula. An absolute cell reference refers to cells in a specific location. A mixed cell reference does both: either the column remains absolute and the row is relative or the column is relative and the row remains absolute. Distinguish between relative, absolute, and mixed cell references using the dollar sign ($). When a formula is copied, a relative cell reference adjusts while an absolute cell reference remains constant. Type a dollar sign before the column and/or row cell reference in a formula to specify that the column or row is an absolute cell reference. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Use Absolute and Mixed Cell References - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Use Absolute and Mixed Cell References - continued In some situations, you may want a formula to contain an absolute cell reference, which always refers to a cell in a specific location. absolute cell reference To identify an absolute cell reference, insert a dollar sign before the row and the column. For example, the absolute cell reference C12 would be typed as $C$12 in a formula. You can also create a formula with multiple absolute cell references. Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Use Absolute and Mixed Cell References - continued**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Use Absolute and Mixed Cell References - continued In a mixed cell reference, either the column remains absolute and the row is relative or the column is relative and the row is absolute. A formula containing a mixed cell reference allows you to fill in the column and row data using only one formula. Identify an absolute or mixed cell reference by typing a dollar sign before the column and/or row reference or press the F4 function key to cycle through the various cell references. For example, if you type =A41 in a cell and then press F4, the cell reference would change to =$A$41. If you press F4 again, the cell reference would change to =A$41. The next time you press F4, the cell reference would change to =$A41. If you press F4 again, the cell reference would change back to =A41. mixed cell reference Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1**

CHECKPOINT 2 Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Display all formulas in a worksheet rather than the results by pressing these keys. Ctrl + \ Ctrl + ` Ctrl + - Ctrl + = This function returns the serial number of the current date and time. MIN MAX DATE NOW Answer Answer Next Question Next Question This function in a formula returns the largest value in a cell range. MIN COUNT MAX AVERAGE This type of reference always refers to a cell in a specific location. standard default relative absolute Answer Answer Next Question Next Slide Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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**Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet**

Benchmark Series Microsoft Excel 2010 Level 1 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet Summary of Presentation Concepts Write formulas with mathematical operators Type a formula in the Formula bar Copy a formula Use the Insert Function feature to insert a formula in a cell Write formulas with the AVERAGE, MAX, MIN, COUNT, NOW, and TODAY functions Create an absolute and mixed cell reference Chapter 2 Inserting Formulas in a Worksheet

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