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**INTRODUCTORY MICROSOFT EXCEL Lesson 4 – Worksheet Formulas**

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**Objectives Enter and edit formulas.**

Distinguish between relative, absolute, and mixed cell references. Use the AutoSum button and the point-and-click method to enter formulas. Display formulas in the worksheet. Perform immediate and delayed calculations.

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**Terms Used in This Lesson**

Absolute cell reference Formulas Mixed cell reference Operand Operator Order of evaluation Point-and-click method Relative cell reference

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**Enter and Edit Formulas**

A worksheet formula consists of two components: An operand is a number or cell reference used in formulas. An operator tells Excel what to do with the operands. For example, in the formula =B3+5, B3 and 5 are operands. The plus sign (+) is an operator.

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**Order Evaluation Contents within parentheses are evaluated first.**

Mathematical operators are evaluated in order of priority, as shown in Table 4-2. Equations are evaluated from left to right if two or more operators have the same order of evaluation. See Table 4-2 in student book, Order of evaluation priority

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**Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Cell References**

Relative cell references adjust to a different location when copied or moved. Absolute cell references describe the same cell location in the worksheet regardless of where they are copied or moved. Mixed cell references contain both relative and absolute cell references.

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Use the AutoSum Button The AutoSum button is used to sum long columns of numbers. Place the highlight in the cell where you want the total to appear. Click the AutoSum button. Excel then displays an outline around the range it has selected. Press Enter to display the sum in the cell.

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**Display Formulas in the Worksheet**

When creating a worksheet with many formulas, it might be easier to organize formulas and detect formula errors when you can view all formulas at once. To view formulas, choose Options on the Tools menu. See Figure 4-8 in student book, Options dialog box

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**Perform Immediate and Delayed Calculations**

Formula calculations can be performed at a specific moment instead of when a worksheet is changed. Delayed calculation is performed by clicking the Manual button on the Calculation tab of the Options dialog box. Manual calculation is performed by pressing the F9 key.

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Summary Worksheet formulas perform calculations on values in the worksheet. Relative, absolute, and mixed cell references are used to create formulas. Formulas may be created quickly by using the point-and-click method.

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Summary A group of cells may be summed quickly by using the AutoSum button on the toolbar. You may view the formulas used to create values in a worksheet by making selections in the Options dialog box. You may delay calculation by choosing Manual Calculation in the Options dialog box.

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