Presentation on theme: "New Nation 3 Types of Republic 1. Small in size and homogeneous"— Presentation transcript:
1New Nation 3 Types of Republic 1. Small in size and homogeneous Willing to give up personal gain for the best for all citizens ( Social Contract Theory)2. Bases on EconomicsAs an individual increased his own wealth, thereto would the society benefit3. Believed that everyone should have a say in GovernmentGovernment should ask common folk what they wanted
2Virtues and the ArtsIn the early years of the country government and people were trying to keep a working man’s mentality.Luxury items were wrong, even the art was portraits of hard working AmericansMason Locke Weem’s “Life of Washington” – created a 6 year old Washington that cut down a cherry tree and could not lie about it.This tried to promote the new nation to take on Washington virtues and patriotism
3Public Education1. Some states were using state taxing to fund education for elementary schools1789 Massachusetts was among first for public education2. States saw the importance of teaching girls as well as boyGirls – they needed to raise the future of America)
4Women’s RoleJudith Sargent Murray – believed that men and women should be treated as equal in educationBelieved that women should be taught to be independent of menAbigail Adams (wife of John Adams)- wrote here husband a letter in 1776 to remember the women when he was writing the new government
5Women and SlaveryNew Jersey wrote in their State constitution that “all inhabitants” of New Jersey had the right to voteTherefor unintentionally giving women and free African Americans the right to vote. (oops)Many northern states gradually banned slavery after the war – know as the First Emancipation1777 – Vermont first state to ban slaveryNew York freed children born into slavery but not till they turned 20
6Slavery Even though slaves were freed, they were not equal. Many laws increased discriminationBlacks were not allowed to testify against whites in courtsAfrican Americans needed to start to form their own school, churches and stores.
7Theory of RacismThomas Jefferson “blacks ere inferior to whites in the endowments both of body and mind” Notes to VirginiaHowever he was an advocate of emancipation.Jefferson believed that African Americans should leave Virginia and start their own colony.White males feared that Black men desired White women, but yet mad no mention of White man’s desire of Black women
8Designing a Republic Government Articles of Confederation – 1st Government of USUnicameral – legislation made up of 1 houseEach state received 2 representatives, but only one voteNo taxing powers, No Army, US Currency worthlessAllowed states to maintain their own sovereignty.
9State ConstitutionsStates were allowed to create their own constitutions, however many states still feared leadership becoming a tyrant.Limited powersLimited term limits on public officeOnly a legislativeSystem of checks and balances in placeLowered the qualifications of voting
10Foreign AffairsIn the beginning of our county America looked weak to foreign countries. (did not have army)Cheap British goods were flowing into America, not allowing US manufactures to flourishSpain would not allow the US to use the Mississippi River to transport goodsBritish closed down trade with America in the British West Indies
11Foreign AffairsIn the Treaty of Paris of 1783, US had to pay back their pre-revolutionary war debt to EnglandHowever with a weak Government and no army and no way of gaining money the US Government could not pay this backThis made the US look extremely weak in the eyes of foreign nations.
12The West Indian Relations Indians were making treaties with other Indians that they did not have the authority to make, over land that the US controlledIndians now had no choice but to deal with the US because all other nations had no authority in North America after the Treaty of Paris 1783.
13The West Land Ordinance of 1785 US was given the land west of the Applianchian Mts.Land was broken into 6 mile squares with each having 36 sections, each section having 640 acres. ( $1 per acre)Would not see to the poorLands were used to pay soldiers and others for payments for the Revolutionary War
14The West Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Set up ways that territories can become State in the United States of AmericaHad to write a Constitution, to be approved by CongressFreedom of ReligionTrial by juryNo cruel and unusual punishmentProhibited any new State to come in as a slave state
15War in the NorthwestIndians did not accept the US as having control of Indian lands, therefor treaties could not be made.Miami Indians kept attacking settlers in the Ohio Valley RegionLittle Turtle was the war chief that led this attacks against the western settlers.The Northwest Indian Wars began
16War in the NorthwestUnder the Articles it was difficult for US to get enough soldiers to defeat little turtleFinally General Anthony Wayne defeated the Miami Confederation of Indians at the Battle of Fallen TimbersTreaty of GreenvilleAllowed settlers to go North of the Ohio RiverGave Indians the territory Indiana ( which will be taken away later)
17Shay’s RebellionDaniel Shay was a farmer from Massachusetts that fought in the Rev. War. Like many he was promised money for fighting in the war, his lands had been foreclosed by the bank, US gov. had no money to pay such farmers Shay led a rebellion of 1500 men to Springfield to capture weapons to use against the US. They were defeated, however it showed the weakness of the national government
18Annapolis ConventionCivil war almost broke out between Maryland and Virginia over border disputesGeorge Washington steps in and called a meeting held Annapolis, Maryland.Only 5 states showed upBecause of the lack of attendance at the convention and events like Shay’s Rebellion and Northwest Indian Wars, George Washington called a meeting in Philadelphia to discuss the Articles of Confederation
19Constitutional Convention Framers- 55 men, known as delegates were chosen to write the Constitution of the United States in Philadelphia.They met in Independence Hall, where 11 years earlier the Declaration of Independence was signed.The delegates named George Washington the President of the ConventionOnly 12 States out of the 13 sent representatives. – Rhode Island did not
20Constitutional Convention All delegates agreed to work in secret.We know most about the convention because of the notes of James MadisonJames Madison is known as “The Father Of the Constitution”Delegates were sent to Philadelphia to revise the Articles of ConfederationThey all agreed to write a new Government for the United States
21New Plans for Government Each state was asked to create their idea for a new Government for the United States.Virginia Plan – this plan called for a Government with 3 separate branches of Government; Legislative, executive and judicial
22Virginia Plan Legislative – would be made up of 2 houses Representation in each house would be based on population or the amount of money that each state would give the new governmentThose of the lower house would be voted in by the peopleThose of the higher house would be selected by the members of the lower house.
23Virginia PlanCongress would choose the Executive Branch, which is the President and the Judicial Branches, which is the national court system.These branches would then get together and write the new constitution to the United StatesMany states believed this plan favored the larger and richer states to much
24New Jersey PlanThe New Jersey Plan also called for 3 separate but equal branches of governmentThe legislative branch should be made up of a unicameral- which means one branch-This legislative would have equal representation – each state having 2 representativesThe legislative would choose the executiveThe executive would choose the Judicial
25Great CompromiseThe Connecticut Compromise – this compromise was agreed upon by all states.The Legislative Branch should be made up of 2 houses called CongressThe lower should be called the House of Representatives and should be based on populationThe upper house shall be called Senate and each state would receive 2 members no matter their size in population or financial contribution to the Government
263/5 CompromiseThis compromise said that all free people should be counted as one personAll slaves should be counted as 3/5 of a person.This means for 5 slaves the south could have 3 people count for representatives for the House of Representatives and 3 people for taxation purposes
27Ratifying the Constitution Supporters of the Constitution and its strong central government called themselves Federalists, while those more in favor of states’ rights were called Antifederalists.The framers of the Constitution devised it so that the Constitution could be passed by special state conventions (where the people had direct says), rather than in state legislatures (where it was more likely to be rejected by politicians fearing loss of power).
28Federalist PapersJames Madison’s answer to them came in the form of Federalist papers 10 and 51, in which he argued that the checks and balances would help and that liberty was safest in large republics, in which anyone could have support, even rebels who went against the norm.Basically, Madison was arguing that if people could be corrupted by office, they could also be corrupted by factional self-interests, and that was a radical argument in 1787.
29Bill of RightsIn any case, it soon became clear that a bill of rights was needed; many states approved the Constitution only after a bill of rights was promised, and even then, they passed it after much debate.James Madison finally introduced a set of proposals, mostly based on the Virginia bill of rights, to Congress, which passed twelve of them; ten of those twelve were passed by the states and went into effect as the first ten amendments, or the Bill of Rights, in 1791.
30Ratifying the Constitution Delaware was the first state to ratify the constitution on June 21, 1788.Virginia would only ratify the constitution with a agreement of a Bill of Rights to be added laterThe Constitution was approved finally on April 6th of 1789.At this meeting everyone there agreed to appoint George Washington the President of the United States.He did not want the position but finally took the position on April 30th 1789 and became the first President of the United States